Jump to content

The Fraudulent Friedmans


A Phoenix

Recommended Posts

GENERAL CARTIER'S ASSESSMENT OF ELIZABETH WELLS GALLUP & THE BACON BILITERAL CIPHER

In his article entitled ‘Le Chiffre De Francis Bacon’, published in the now defunct Fly Leaves of the Ladies Guild of Saint Albans General Cartier summarized his findings:          

1. There is a cryptographic system which was invented by Bacon between 1576 and 1579 and was first described by him in his work The Advancement of Learning, published in London in 1605.

2. Printing establishments in Bacon’s time had the assortment of types needed to apply the system in order to encipher secrets to be hidden in the external text.

3. Nobody, at least to my knowledge, has discovered any document (manuscript notes or correspondence of some sort) clearly indicating an application of Bacon’s system in printed or other works.

4. I consider the decipherments made by Mrs Gallup and verified by the cryptologists of the Riverbank Laboratories under the direction of Colonel Fabyan to be valid.

5. I have no opinion whatever with regard to any other decipherments made by that lady, whose integrity appears to me to be beyond suspicion.

6. I disclaim any competence as regards the conclusions to be drawn from the enciphered biography of Francis Bacon.  

 My classification for the majority of the letters agreed with that of Mrs Gallup; there was disagreement to the extent of about 10 percent of the letters; as to the letters which I had considered to be of doubtful form I decided I was in error and adopted Mrs Gallup’s classification for them. However that may be, and despite the differences there were between my classification and those of Mrs Gallup, my decipherments agreed with hers save for a few words.1

1. General Cartier, ‘Le Chiffre De Francis Bacon’, Fly Leaves of the Ladies Guild of Saint Albans, pp. 318-9. I have taken the translation from William F. Friedman and Elizebeth S. Friedman, The Shakespearean Ciphers Examined An Analysis Of Cryptographic Systems Used As Evidence That Some Other Author Than William Shakespeare Wrote The Plays Commonly Attributed To Him (Cambridge University Press, 1958), pp. 251-52.

 

Paper:   https://www.academia.edu/81465877/The_Fraudulent_Friedmans_The_Bacon_Ciphers_in_the_Shakespeare_Works

Video:   https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fc2ErlSmmjI&t=9s

For all the Riverbank Publications please see https://gorhambury.org/  a unique website with its stated purpose: To use technology in a novel way to expose the secret writings of Sir Francis to the world, presenting visualizations in such a way as to eliminate any possible doubt about Validity.

 

ElizabethGallupportrait.jpg

  • Wow! 3
Link to comment
Share on other sites

1 hour ago, A Phoenix said:

GENERAL CARTIER'S ASSESSMENT OF ELIZABETH WELLS GALLUP & THE BACON BILITERAL CIPHER

In his article entitled ‘Le Chiffre De Francis Bacon’, published in the now defunct Fly Leaves of the Ladies Guild of Saint Albans General Cartier summarized his findings:          

1. There is a cryptographic system which was invented by Bacon between 1576 and 1579 and was first described by him in his work The Advancement of Learning, published in London in 1605.

2. Printing establishments in Bacon’s time had the assortment of types needed to apply the system in order to encipher secrets to be hidden in the external text.

3. Nobody, at least to my knowledge, has discovered any document (manuscript notes or correspondence of some sort) clearly indicating an application of Bacon’s system in printed or other works.

4. I consider the decipherments made by Mrs Gallup and verified by the cryptologists of the Riverbank Laboratories under the direction of Colonel Fabyan to be valid.

5. I have no opinion whatever with regard to any other decipherments made by that lady, whose integrity appears to me to be beyond suspicion.

6. I disclaim any competence as regards the conclusions to be drawn from the enciphered biography of Francis Bacon.  

 My classification for the majority of the letters agreed with that of Mrs Gallup; there was disagreement to the extent of about 10 percent of the letters; as to the letters which I had considered to be of doubtful form I decided I was in error and adopted Mrs Gallup’s classification for them. However that may be, and despite the differences there were between my classification and those of Mrs Gallup, my decipherments agreed with hers save for a few words.1

1. General Cartier, ‘Le Chiffre De Francis Bacon’, Fly Leaves of the Ladies Guild of Saint Albans, pp. 318-9. I have taken the translation from William F. Friedman and Elizebeth S. Friedman, The Shakespearean Ciphers Examined An Analysis Of Cryptographic Systems Used As Evidence That Some Other Author Than William Shakespeare Wrote The Plays Commonly Attributed To Him (Cambridge University Press, 1958), pp. 251-52.

 

Paper:   https://www.academia.edu/81465877/The_Fraudulent_Friedmans_The_Bacon_Ciphers_in_the_Shakespeare_Works

Video:   https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fc2ErlSmmjI&t=9s

For all the Riverbank Publications please see https://gorhambury.org/  a unique website with its stated purpose: To use technology in a novel way to expose the secret writings of Sir Francis to the world, presenting visualizations in such a way as to eliminate any possible doubt about Validity.

 

ElizabethGallupportrait.jpg

 

Hi A Phoenix

Your impeccable research is full of interesting and surprising information.   E.g. Cartier's conclusions. As usual, brilliant!

 

  • Like 3
  • Thanks 1
Link to comment
Share on other sites

BACONIAN CIPHERS & FRENCH INTELLIGENCE

From before the turn of the twentieth century there had been a growing consensus among German, and to a lesser extent, Dutch academics that Bacon was in fact the secret author of the Shakespeare works. The endorsement of Gallup’s decipherments by General Cartier had the striking effect of vigorously renewing the debate in post war France. Opinion, as it had been in Germany and Holland was divided, with opposing views warmly expressed in numerous articles, some it has to be said more scholarly than others. General Cartier's endorsement of the bi-literal cipher was also not to go unnoticed in the close knit world of cryptology. Two years after his series of articles two French army officers Andre Lange and E. A. Soudart the ‘Former heads of the Cipher Bureau at General Headquarters’, published in French a Treatise on Cryptology. The historical treatise is listed by Professor Galland in An Historical and Analytical Bibliography of the Literature Of Cryptography:

                                                                                                                                                                                          
This excellent general text on cryptography gives considerable information concerning the history of cryptography, theories of ciphering, examples and methods of deciphering codes, and a bibliographical list of about 100 items, pp. iii-xv. It is one of the best of modern French works on the subject.1

1. Joseph S. Galland, An Historical and Analytical Bibliography of the Literature of Cryptology (Evanston, Northwestern University, 1945), p. 108.

 

Paper:   https://www.academia.edu/81465877/The_Fraudulent_Friedmans_The_Bacon_Ciphers_in_the_Shakespeare_Works

Video:   https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fc2ErlSmmjI&t=9s

For all the Riverbank Publications please see https://gorhambury.org/  a unique website with its stated purpose: To use technology in a novel way to expose the secret writings of Sir Francis to the world, presenting visualizations in such a way as to eliminate any possible doubt about Validity.

 

cryptology-cover.png

  • Like 4
Link to comment
Share on other sites

BACONIAN CIPHERS & FRENCH INTELLIGENCE

This French work originally published in 1925 with a new edition in 1935 is virtually unknown to and unread by the English speaking world and notice of it does not appear in the Friedman’s The Shakespearean Ciphers Examined. The motivation and purpose for producing Traite De Cryptographie were concisely stated by Lange and Soudart senior members of French Cipher Intelligence in their preface:

                                                                                                                                                There exist, to our knowledge, very few works dealing with Cryptography and Decrypting. Several are notable. But, in addition, as such works, to be consulted with profit, require a fairly extensive knowledge of foreign languages, the mass of information which they contain makes them hard to read for those who desire to obtain enough of the general principles to embark upon the details of practice. Besides, none of these books treats the subject in its entirety: Each treats only one of the sides. Outside of a brochure by Kerckhoffs, on military cryptography, published in 1883, which is not up to date as to the systems now in use, we know of no methodical exposition, at once compact and complete, of the science of Cryptography and the art of decrypting.

The work hereinafter given has for its object the bridging of this gap. Ten years spent in cipher work, during the World War at G. H. Q., and after the war for our personal edification, have led us to undertake this task. The complexity of the questions treated has made it necessary for us above all to be clear, and to reject deliberately technical expositions susceptible of making the demonstrations heavy and tiresome. Nevertheless, one will find in the following chapters sufficient information to permit those interested to carry their researches further, notably a bibliography more complete than any heretofore published, together with the publishers of the more important references. The bibliography alone is of inestimable value, most of the works listed being today out of print (unfindable).

We have written this book for the general public, always so open to all that touches on science. We have written it also, more especially, for officers, and, let us add, as much for Reserve officers as for those on the active list. One must not forget that it is the Reserve officers who performed most of the cipher work for the general staffs during the entire period of the World War, and that the Cipher Bureau at G. H. Q. was headed by Reserve officers from February 1917 until demobilization. Those who read this may perhaps in their turn be called to fill the posts which their elders once had the honour to hold. This book will be, we believe, of some help in their beginnings, and we hope will enable them to avoid the difficulties which we had when we started.

We think that cryptographic studies should be of interest to every Frenchman. The services rendered in the war by decrypting units have shown the worth of cryptanalysis. Since the war, a recrudescence of interest has taken place along these lines. May the explanations to follow bring a modest, but efficacious, contribution to these attractive studies.1

1. Andre Lange and E. E. Soudart, Treatise on Cryptography An English Translation Of The Original Traite De Cryptographie (Laguna Hills, California, Aegean Park Press, 1981), preface.

Paper:   https://www.academia.edu/81465877/The_Fraudulent_Friedmans_The_Bacon_Ciphers_in_the_Shakespeare_Works

Video:   https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fc2ErlSmmjI&t=9s

For all the Riverbank Publications please see https://gorhambury.org/  a unique website with its stated purpose: To use technology in a novel way to expose the secret writings of Sir Francis to the world, presenting visualizations in such a way as to eliminate any possible doubt about Validity.

Lange.jpg

  • Like 5
Link to comment
Share on other sites

FRANCIS BACON, HIS AUTHORSHIP OF THE SHAKESPEARE WORKS & FRENCH INTELLIGENCE

The treatise is divided along three distinct lines: historical exposition, cryptography by means of letters and numerals, and cryptography by means of figures and symbols. In the first part devoted to an historical survey of cryptography, on reaching the seventeenth century, the two French authors in summarising General Cartier’s articles provided the French reader with a clear concise description and demonstration of the Bacon Bi-literal Cipher. The two French cipher experts acknowledge that most of the information relating to Bacon’s cipher is taken from the articles written by General Cartier. They also reveal they were aware that in the eighteenth century Horace Walpole in “Doutes historiques” (historical doubts) had questioned whether William Shakespeare was the true author of the works bearing his name and that later writers had attributed the Shakespeare works to Bacon before starting with reference to Mrs Gallup’s bi-literal decipherments ‘The most recent decryptings seem to confirm this hypothesis’:1  

The seventeenth century is the period in history during which cipher reached its highest degree of perfection. It is not a century of inventions, since at this time the great systems were already in existence. The art of cryptography and that of decrypting were nevertheless at this time the object of so great an interest on the part of the kings and princes, that great minds did not scorn to make deep studies of these sciences, and the ciphers of the period acquired in consequence a great reputation for security, since some among them have resisted up to our time all the efforts of cryptanalysts.

In the first half of this century, in the times of Elizabeth, James I, and Louis XIII, lived Bacon, Rossignol, and Cospi. The first, philosopher and savant, as well as politician and orator, has written works in the plain text of which is hidden an enciphered text, of which the decrypting is at present hardly started….

Sir Francis Bacon, Baron of Verulam, better known under the name of Chancellor Bacon or Lord Bacon, member of the Council under Elizabeth, the Lord Chancellor under the reign of James I (1561-1626), was the inventor of a cryptographic system to which he gave his name and by means of which he introduced into his works texts of ciphers. The study of these texts undertaken many years ago by specialists and continued in our time under the direction of General Fabyan, U.S.A., has brought out results which have recently been revealed by General Cartier, and tend to bring in a new light on an historical problem which has long occupied public opinion, namely the possible identification of Lord Bacon with William Shakespeare.

The process of Lord Bacon was first mentioned by him in the 1605 edition of his work “Advancement of Learning” which consisted of only two volumes, and was described very explicitly in the larger edition of 1623 of the same work, published in Latin under the Title “De dignitate et augmentis scientiarum,” comprising nine volumes. General Cartier thinks that at the time of the first publishing, Bacon, fearing that the discovery of his cipher might cost him his head-the English tribunals, at this time, considered the mere fact of having corresponded in secret characters as an aggravating circumstance-preferred not to mention his system except in vague terms without describing its characteristics. Eighteen years later, experience having shown him that nobody had appeared to doubt the explanation which he had made of his cipher and desiring that the story which he had hidden with so much care and which one recognized to be the secret history of his life and of his time, should not remain forever unknown, he gave a detailed description of a cipher called by him “bilateral” cipher, accompanied by very explicit example, so that there should be no doubt on the manner in which it should be used….

The process of Lord Bacon has been mentioned by Kluber, Vesin, and Fleissner von Wostrowitz. A hundred year later (1685), a German author Frederici described a similar system, of which he stated that he was not the inventor and which the original, according to him, dated back to a period before that of Bacon. In reality, this system is that of Bacon's slightly modified….

Bacon’s system, according to the data given by Gen. Cartier, was used by Bacon in his “Novum Organum” and in the works of his contemporaries, Bright, Burton, Peele, Spenser, Ben Jonson, and Shakespeare. According to recent information, the decrypting done on the above texts by Mrs. Gallup and Mrs. Wells will have brought to light a “Life of Bacon,” by himself, containing matter of the greatest interest concerning the history of England at the time of Elizabeth and concerning the true identity of Shakespeare.

Frederici’s system, besides, would have served to encipher the inscription of 1616, on Shakespeare’s original tombstone, in the church at Stratford-on-Avon.

  …The systems of Bacon and Frederici are double substitutions of which the only difficulty, once the key is known, is the identification of the typographical character used. The operations of encipherment and decipherment, theoretically simple, are in practice extremely long and complicated, which explains the difficulties which the cryptanalysts have had to overcome and the time which it has taken them to obtain results….Let us add that the researches should not be limited to the books printed in England at the time of Bacon and Shakespeare, but should cover as well the editions of the seventeenth century, which reveal upon minute examination the different typographical forms which are the base of the above-mentioned cryptographic systems.2

1. Andre Lange and E. E. Soudart, Treatise on Cryptography An English Translation Of The Original Traite De Cryptographie (Laguna Hills, California, Aegean Park Press, 1981), p. 15. 

2. Ibid., pp. 12-15.          

Paper:   https://www.academia.edu/81465877/The_Fraudulent_Friedmans_The_Bacon_Ciphers_in_the_Shakespeare_Works

Video:   https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fc2ErlSmmjI&t=9s

For all the Riverbank Publications please see https://gorhambury.org/  a unique website with its stated purpose: To use technology in a novel way to expose the secret writings of Sir Francis to the world, presenting visualizations in such a way as to eliminate any possible doubt about Validity.

ff1.png

  • Like 2
  • Wow! 3
Link to comment
Share on other sites

BACONIAN CIPHERS AND BRITISH INTELLIGENCE

Around the time General Cartier was endorsing Mrs Gallup’s bi-literal cipher decipherments in a series of articles in French periodicals, an article appeared in the now obscure and defunct Cassells Weekly apparently written by a British intelligence officer who had secretly operated in France throughout the first World War at GHQ. The virtually unknown article fortuitously appeared exactly three hundred years after the publication of the 1623 Shakespeare First Folio in the May edition of 1923. The article is prefaced by a note on the author from the Editor. There are only two copies known to exist of this May 1923 edition. One is housed at the British Library. This copy is in such poor condition it can only-with permission-be examined at the library. The other known copy is held by the Bodleian Library, Oxford. As far as I am aware the main body of the text has not hitherto been reproduced in any scholarly journal or publication. Given its relative inaccessibility I have decided to reproduce the Editor’s note and the text written by Major Stevenson (a pseudonym?), in full:

BACON’S REAL LIFE STORY

An Expert’s Note on the Secret Cipher

                                                                                                                                                                                                      
 [Major Stevenson, who has written the following note on the Baconian cipher, is an expert of high standing on all questions of codes. He was a well known, mysterious and ubiquitous figure at G. H. Q. and over the whole front in France throughout the war, being known as the Hush Hush man-the deciphering of enemy messages being regarded necessarily as ultra secret.

A discovery of the late Colonel Fitz-Gerald, Private Secretary to Lord Kitchener, Major Stevenson had triumphs of far-reaching importance, although known only to a handful of higher Staff Officers. In the early days he was pitted single-handed against a galaxy of German Professors, and at the time of the first Zeppelin raids Lord Kitchener himself took the keenest personal interest in this struggle of wits.

A scholar, a cousin to R.L.S., it is not necessary further to emphasize both his interest in literature and his authority when discussing ciphers.-Editor.]

 

Paper:   https://www.academia.edu/81465877/The_Fraudulent_Friedmans_The_Bacon_Ciphers_in_the_Shakespeare_Works

Video:   https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fc2ErlSmmjI&t=9s

For all the Riverbank Publications please see https://gorhambury.org/  a unique website with its stated purpose: To use technology in a novel way to expose the secret writings of Sir Francis to the world, presenting visualizations in such a way as to eliminate any possible doubt about Validity.

Thames House MI5

View_of_Thames_House_from_Millbank.jpg

  • Like 3
  • Wow! 2
Link to comment
Share on other sites

BACONIAN CIPHERS AND BRITISH INTELLIGENCE

Note on the Baconian Cipher and its particular

method and application by Bacon himself

This cipher, which is described in most elementary text-books on Cryptography, is a form of simple “substitution”-that is, one in which the “cryptogram” contains, instead of the actual letters in the “clear,” other letters which have been substituted. The letters used as substitutes may be employed singly (i.e. one letter or point in a series of numbers in the cryptogram representing one letter in the “clear”), as in the cipher invented and used by Julius Caesar, or in that which was used by Marmont during the later stages of the Peninsular campaign, and which (being more scientific, attempting to baffle solution effected by means of counting frequences of the occurrence of similar letters) is said to have puzzled Wellington’s staff.

The letters of the cryptogram may also be used in groups, each group representing one letter of the “clear,” and this is the plan adopted by Bacon. He employs the permutations and combinations of any two letters of the alphabet-say A and B-arranged in groups of five. For example:

A A A A A = A

A A A A B = B

A A A B B =  C

                                                                                                                                                   and so on.

Well Chosen Types

The application of the cipher by Bacon is dependent entirely on the use by the printer of two founts of type, which we may call fount A and fount B. The slighter the distinction between the impressions of the types of the two founts, the greater, obviously, will be the security against detection. The types actually used in the editions of the various authors of which the text was used by Bacon for communicating his story were singularly well chosen for the purpose.

     Some of the letters are quite distinct from each other, and this Bacon doubtless thought (because he dared not overdo the security touch) would be sufficient to put an acute searcher, who had read Bacon's own description of the cipher in his “De Augmentis,” on the trail. Many of the letters, on the other hand, are so like each other that it requires very keen vision, or even a magnifying glass to distinguish them. This would, thought Bacon, afford the required degree of concealment from the common reader, whose curiosity might be aroused.

 

Paper:   https://www.academia.edu/81465877/The_Fraudulent_Friedmans_The_Bacon_Ciphers_in_the_Shakespeare_Works

Video:   https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fc2ErlSmmjI&t=9s

For all the Riverbank Publications please see https://gorhambury.org/  a unique website with its stated purpose: To use technology in a novel way to expose the secret writings of Sir Francis to the world, presenting visualizations in such a way as to eliminate any possible doubt about Validity.

MI6 HQ VAUXHALL BRIDGE

MI6.jpg

  • Like 4
  • Wow! 1
Link to comment
Share on other sites

BACONIAN CIPHERS AND BRITISH INTELLIGENCE

The whole scheme was quite successful, perhaps too successful to suit Bacon's vanity, in that the author's miraculous literary merits-to say nothing of his birthright-and his colossal output, enough for ten men, surely, when one remembers Bacon’s manifold other activities, have remained hidden for nearly three centuries. In submitting to the printer the manuscripts of a text which was to be used for conveying his cryptographic message, all Bacon had to do was to arrange with the printer that wherever a dot was placed under a letter the type for this letter should be taken from, say, fount A, the type for all other letters being taken from fount B.

An Example

Let us take an example. Suppose Bacon wanted to convey the message “Bacon wrote this,” and used the passage:

                                                  !         !       !          !        !

                                       What a fool honesty is, and trust, his

                                        . . . .    . . . . . . . .     .  .             .

                                         !         !       !          !         !        !       !

                                       sworn brother, a very simple gentleman

                                       .        .    . .           .   . . .            .          . . .

                                                 !       !

                                       The Winter’s Tale.

First, for his own use, he would divide up the letters by some slight mark (shown by !) which could easily be erased after it had served its purpose. Let the letters to be enciphered have the following substitutes according to the conventional substitution alphabet:                                                                                                                                              

Clear.             Cipher.              Clear.       Cipher.           Clear.            Cipher.

B =               AAAAB             W =         BBBBA             T =            BABBB

A =               AAAAA             R =          BBBAB             H =           BAAAB

C =               AAABB              O =         AABBB              I =            BBBBB

O =               AABBB              T =          BABAA             S =           ABBBA

N =               BBABB              E =          ABBBB                         

The A’s of the letters in the conventional alphabet will be represented by type (no matter for what letter) of fount A, and the B’s by type from fount B. Dots are placed, accordingly, under the appropriate letters of the MS., and the printer selects his type accordingly.

How Bacon Worked

Of course, it would have been much easier for Bacon to work with a proof copy in type, before proceeding to encipher, and the suggestion at once arises whether he did not do so. Was it not simply the printer to whom he conveyed some portion of the bribes which he himself took, on his own confession, from other people with so little compunction? This would have been much simpler, easier, and would have involved much less risk of “leakage.”

If the cryptogram had been solved in Bacon’s own day, I wonder whether the legal annals of the epoch would have been piquantly enriched by what would have corresponded (in present-day practice) to a series of libel actions against the Lord Chancellor!

                                                                                               B. J. STEVENSON.1

1. B. J. Stevenson, ‘Bacon’s Real Life Story. An Expert’s Note on the Secret Cipher’, Cassells Weekly, 2 May, 1923, p. 226

 

Paper:   https://www.academia.edu/81465877/The_Fraudulent_Friedmans_The_Bacon_Ciphers_in_the_Shakespeare_Works

Video:   https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fc2ErlSmmjI&t=9s

For all the Riverbank Publications please see https://gorhambury.org/  a unique website with its stated purpose: To use technology in a novel way to expose the secret writings of Sir Francis to the world, presenting visualizations in such a way as to eliminate any possible doubt about Validity.

GCHQ

GCHQ.jpg

  • Like 3
  • Thanks 1
Link to comment
Share on other sites

Phenomenal research AP. 👏 Fascinating finds.

I’ve been doing my own digging around ciphers/codes etc again over the last week. It started off as part of a longer deep-dive into Elias Ashmole (which I’ll post elsewhere) and I came across a very interesting couple of quotes. So, here’s one of the slides from that presentation with the quotes from Ashmole. As you can see Ashmole was specifically referring to information hidden in poetry, and then it goes on to list the 4 methods used, if things were hidden but intended to be found by those who knew how to look. Interesting that it basically says there would be no dispute about what was being conveyed, once found.
 

I’ll add Bacon’s quote too from Advancement of Learning Book 6

ashmole2.png.975e68e86c644309953a90fdac1a798f.pngCleanSimplebeautyquoteInstagramfeedpost(7).png.6c5d16d748c704109639f7d670d7d20c.png

  • Like 3
  • Wow! 2

 "For nothing is born without unity or without the point." amazon.com/dp/B0CLDKDPY8

Link to comment
Share on other sites

24 minutes ago, A Phoenix said:

Hi Yann, 

You are very welcome.

I hope you liked the French connection!

Peace and Love

Phoenix.

Hi A Phoenix,

Indeed ! 😊

And this makes me even more excited to share with you my own research on the French connection.

I have often read with a great deal of pleasure a legacy of the famous lord Bacon, one of the greatest geniuses that our own or any country has produced; after having bequeathed his soul, body, and estate, in the usual form, he adds,

"My name and memory I leave to foreign nations, and to my countrymen, after some time be passed over."

https://quod.lib.umich.edu/e/ecco/004786805.0001.000/1:35?rgn=div1;view=fulltext

Joseph Addison - The Tatler

(Work in progress 😉

Warm regards,

Yann

  • Like 3

image.png.b8c74f56d5551c745119c268cf9d3db8.png

Link to comment
Share on other sites

US & FRENCH INTELLIGENCE & BACONIAN CIPHERS

In the Summer of 1918 Yardley armed with his letter of introduction from the French High Commission in Washington arranged to meet General Cartier to explain his mission to study the different codes and ciphers encountered and used by the French Signal Corps. After listening to his request Cartier contacted Captain Georges Painvin ‘the great cipher genius of France.’The brilliant French cryptanalyst had a legendary reputation as ‘the most skilful cryptographer in all the Allied Governments’ and Yardley recalled a lecture given by Colonel Frank Moorman, a Staff Officer at American General Headquarters, who unreservedly stated ‘Captain Georges Painvin, the chief code expert of the French, an analytical genius of the highest order, was a regular wizard in solving codes.’2 For much of the war Painvin had served in the office of General Cartier. His single greatest achievement came when he broke the ADFGVX cipher, the notoriously difficult field cipher used by the Germans at the latter end of the war. During the last weeks of the war Friedman was assigned to Painvin’s cryptanalytic group to assist the Frenchman on the intercepts of ADFGVX system.3

1. Herbert O. Yardley, The American Black Chamber (first published in 1931: reprinted at Laguna Hills, California: Aegean Park Press, n. d.), p. 222.

2. Ibid., p. 222-3

3. Ronald W. Clark, The Man Who Broke Purple (London: Corgi Books, 1978), p. 59.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Georges_Painvin

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Herbert_Yardley

 

Paper:   https://www.academia.edu/81465877/The_Fraudulent_Friedmans_The_Bacon_Ciphers_in_the_Shakespeare_Works

Video:   https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fc2ErlSmmjI&t=9s

For all the Riverbank Publications please see https://gorhambury.org/  a unique website with its stated purpose: To use technology in a novel way to expose the secret writings of Sir Francis to the world, presenting visualizations in such a way as to eliminate any possible doubt about Validity.

Captain Georges Painvin & Herbert O. Yardley

Paivin_Young_photo.jpg

Herbert_O._Yardley.jpg

  • Like 2
  • Wow! 1
Link to comment
Share on other sites

US & FRENCH INTELLIGENCE & BACONIAN CIPHERS

Painvin came to the attention of General Cartier by sending him a memorandum outlining a simplified method of breaking the ABC system used by the Germans in the early stages of the war. In the words of Kahn it marked the beginning of his rise to prominence. The Frenchman ‘was destined to become the Perseus of cryptologists in the epic struggle of World War I, slaying one German cryptographic Gorgon after another.’1 An excited and slightly awed Yardley was introduced to Painvin by his superior General Cartier. Their shared expertise in cryptology formed the basis of a warm and lasting friendship ‘I became an intimate member of his household and spent many quiet evenings there, listening to his brilliant discussion of cryptography’, Yardley later recalled with some affection.2 The great Painvin was also to add to his education, one which Yardley would use to great effect in the years to come:

Painvin gave me a desk in his office and opened his files to me, and I made the most of the opportunity to study under this master, whose instruction and inspiration were to stand me in good stead, when later, from 1919 to 1929, I directed the energies of a group of cryptographers, deciphering the secret codes and cipher messages of foreign governments.3

1. David Kahn, The Codebreakers The Story of Secret Writing (New York: Scribner, 1967, 1996), pp. 304-5.

2. Herbert O. Yardley, The American Black Chamber (first published in 1931: reprinted at Laguna Hills, California: Aegean Park Press, n. d.), p. 224.

3. Ibid., p. 224.

Paper:   https://www.academia.edu/81465877/The_Fraudulent_Friedmans_The_Bacon_Ciphers_in_the_Shakespeare_Works

Video:   https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fc2ErlSmmjI&t=9s

For all the Riverbank Publications please see https://gorhambury.org/  a unique website with its stated purpose: To use technology in a novel way to expose the secret writings of Sir Francis to the world, presenting visualizations in such a way as to eliminate any possible doubt about Validity.

Black Chamber.jpg

  • Like 3
Link to comment
Share on other sites

US & FRENCH INTELLIGENCE & BACONIAN CIPHERS

The French cipher experts Cartier and Painvin must have often discussed the Bacon Bi-literal Cipher with Yardley, the head of the Cipher Bureau (MI-8) and no doubt Yardley discussed the Bacon Bi-literal Cipher with Friedman with whom Yardley had a very long private and professional relationship. When MI-8 was finally disbanded in October 1929 Yardley wrote The American Black Chamber revealing secrets about his time working as a codebreaker for US Intelligence which was published in 1931 and that year he also wrote a little known and long forgotten article for The Saturday Evening Post entitled ‘Cryptograms and Their Solution’, one not mentioned by the Friedmans in The Shakespearean Ciphers Examined:

 

                                 A aaaaa   B aaaab  C aaaba   D aabaa  E abaaa

                                 F baaaa   G baaab  H baaba   I babaa   J bbaaa

                                 K bbaab  L bbaba  M bbbaa  N bbbab O bbbbb

                                 P babba  Q babbb  R abbbb   S aabbb  T aaabb

                                 U bbabb  V abaab X  aabab   Y babab  Z ababa                     

More has, perhaps been written about the biliteral Baconian cipher, attributed to Lord Bacon, than any other single form of secret communication. In this cipher the entire alphabet may be expressed by the two letters a and b in combinations of five.

One of the theories of the Baconians is that the wise men of the past did not dare write their scientific discoveries for fear of being put to death. Thus they left to posterity their knowledge by means of the biliteral cipher. This was done by using two different kinds of type in printing their literary efforts. This theory flourishes because of the fact that books of this period were actually printed with different-shaped type. Those with thin edges are called a’s by the Baconians and those with thicker lines are b’s. Thus, if there are four letters with thin edges-a’s-and one with heavier lines-b-we have aaaab, which equals the letter b in the biliteral cipher. Continuing in this fashion, many students have given the world some curious readings. Excavations have actually taken place in England for hidden treasure as a result of these decipherments. One reading from the original of one of Shakespeare’s plays, if we are to believe the decipherer, is a message from Francis Bacon, who states he is the rightful author and the illegitimate son of Queen Elizabeth. I should add what, no doubt, the reader already knows: The type are different because they were made from imperfect moulds during the early forms of printing, and the so-called a letters and the b letters are so nearly alike that the decipherer may use his own imagination in his selection. Hence these curious decipherments.1

1. Herbert O. Yardley, ‘Cryptograms and Their Solution’, The Saturday Evening Post, 21 November 1931, p. 63.

Paper:   https://www.academia.edu/81465877/The_Fraudulent_Friedmans_The_Bacon_Ciphers_in_the_Shakespeare_Works

Video:   https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fc2ErlSmmjI&t=9s

For all the Riverbank Publications please see https://gorhambury.org/  a unique website with its stated purpose: To use technology in a novel way to expose the secret writings of Sir Francis to the world, presenting visualizations in such a way as to eliminate any possible doubt about Validity.

 

 

  • Like 2
  • Wow! 1
Link to comment
Share on other sites

US & FRENCH INTELLIGENCE & BACONIAN CIPHERS

It starts by stating that perhaps more has been written about the Bacon Bi-literal Cipher than any other single form of secret communication. The opening statement is followed by a description of the Bacon Bi-literal Cipher ‘the entire alphabet may be expressed by the two letters a and b in combinations of five’. What it does not say is whether or not this is the same combination of a and b letters for each letter of the alphabet as originally given by Bacon in De Augmentis. It is not. The example given here radically differs from the form in which it was first presented by Bacon. The first three letters of the alphabet in the article A, B, and C, are given the same a and b combination as given by Bacon. But from D onwards the assignment of a’s and b’s differs from the combinations given by Bacon. The letter combination in the article for the letter D is the letter for E in the original bi-literal cipher, as is the case for E, F, G, H, I,  which in the original bi-literal cipher represented I, R, S, T, W, respectively. Moreover the letter combinations alongside the letters J, K, L, M, N, O and U in the article find no equivalent in the original given by Bacon. In addition the illustration in the article does not follow the 24 letter Elizabethan alphabet where I and J and U and V were interchangeable and nor does it follow the modern 26 letter alphabet. The illustration provides only twenty five letters-completely omitting the letter W. These deviations, are of course, not mistakes but deliberate, done with a definite purpose.

This Rosicrucian device of making what seems to be a ‘mistake’ is designed to attract the attention of the initiated. Outside the bi-literal illustration in the column directly concerning Bacon and his bi-literal cipher the rest of the text (‘aaaab’ is counted as 5) comprises of 287 words Fra Rosicrosse in kay cipher which minus the block ‘aaaab’ 287-5=282 Francis Bacon in kay cipher. If the number 282 is added to the numerical equivalent of the missing W in simple cipher (21): 282+21=303 which when the null ‘0’ is dropped it leaves 33 Bacon in simple cipher. Thus we have in a combination of kay and simple cipher Francis Bacon, Shakespeare, Brother of the Rosy Cross.

Paper:   https://www.academia.edu/81465877/The_Fraudulent_Friedmans_The_Bacon_Ciphers_in_the_Shakespeare_Works

Video:   https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fc2ErlSmmjI&t=9s

For all the Riverbank Publications please see https://gorhambury.org/  a unique website with its stated purpose: To use technology in a novel way to expose the secret writings of Sir Francis to the world, presenting visualizations in such a way as to eliminate any possible doubt about Validity.

Screenshot (1885).png

  • Like 2
  • Wow! 3
Link to comment
Share on other sites

2 hours ago, A Phoenix said:

US & FRENCH INTELLIGENCE & BACONIAN CIPHERS

In the Summer of 1918 Yardley armed with his letter of introduction from the French High Commission in Washington arranged to meet General Cartier to explain his mission to study the different codes and ciphers encountered and used by the French Signal Corps. After listening to his request Cartier contacted Captain Georges Painvin ‘the great cipher genius of France.’The brilliant French cryptanalyst had a legendary reputation as ‘the most skilful cryptographer in all the Allied Governments’ and Yardley recalled a lecture given by Colonel Frank Moorman, a Staff Officer at American General Headquarters, who unreservedly stated ‘Captain Georges Painvin, the chief code expert of the French, an analytical genius of the highest order, was a regular wizard in solving codes.’2 For much of the war Painvin had served in the office of General Cartier. His single greatest achievement came when he broke the ADFGVX cipher, the notoriously difficult field cipher used by the Germans at the latter end of the war. During the last weeks of the war Friedman was assigned to Painvin’s cryptanalytic group to assist the Frenchman on the intercepts of ADFGVX system.3

1. Herbert O. Yardley, The American Black Chamber (first published in 1931: reprinted at Laguna Hills, California: Aegean Park Press, n. d.), p. 222.

2. Ibid., p. 222-3

3. Ronald W. Clark, The Man Who Broke Purple (London: Corgi Books, 1978), p. 59.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Georges_Painvin

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Herbert_Yardley

 

Paper:   https://www.academia.edu/81465877/The_Fraudulent_Friedmans_The_Bacon_Ciphers_in_the_Shakespeare_Works

Video:   https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fc2ErlSmmjI&t=9s

For all the Riverbank Publications please see https://gorhambury.org/  a unique website with its stated purpose: To use technology in a novel way to expose the secret writings of Sir Francis to the world, presenting visualizations in such a way as to eliminate any possible doubt about Validity.

Captain Georges Painvin & Herbert O. Yardley

Paivin_Young_photo.jpg

Herbert_O._Yardley.jpg

Hi A Phoenix

Great research cogently written. Very difficult subject.

  • Like 4
  • Thanks 1
Link to comment
Share on other sites

9 hours ago, A Phoenix said:

US & FRENCH INTELLIGENCE & BACONIAN CIPHERS

It starts by stating that perhaps more has been written about the Bacon Bi-literal Cipher than any other single form of secret communication. The opening statement is followed by a description of the Bacon Bi-literal Cipher ‘the entire alphabet may be expressed by the two letters a and b in combinations of five’. What it does not say is whether or not this is the same combination of a and b letters for each letter of the alphabet as originally given by Bacon in De Augmentis. It is not. The example given here radically differs from the form in which it was first presented by Bacon. The first three letters of the alphabet in the article A, B, and C, are given the same a and b combination as given by Bacon. But from D onwards the assignment of a’s and b’s differs from the combinations given by Bacon. The letter combination in the article for the letter D is the letter for E in the original bi-literal cipher, as is the case for E, F, G, H, I,  which in the original bi-literal cipher represented I, R, S, T, W, respectively. Moreover the letter combinations alongside the letters J, K, L, M, N, O and U in the article find no equivalent in the original given by Bacon. In addition the illustration in the article does not follow the 24 letter Elizabethan alphabet where I and J and U and V were interchangeable and nor does it follow the modern 26 letter alphabet. The illustration provides only twenty five letters-completely omitting the letter W. These deviations, are of course, not mistakes but deliberate, done with a definite purpose.

This Rosicrucian device of making what seems to be a ‘mistake’ is designed to attract the attention of the initiated. Outside the bi-literal illustration in the column directly concerning Bacon and his bi-literal cipher the rest of the text (‘aaaab’ is counted as 5) comprises of 287 words Fra Rosicrosse in kay cipher which minus the block ‘aaaab’ 287-5=282 Francis Bacon in kay cipher. If the number 282 is added to the numerical equivalent of the missing W in simple cipher (21): 282+21=303 which when the null ‘0’ is dropped it leaves 33 Bacon in simple cipher. Thus we have in a combination of kay and simple cipher Francis Bacon, Shakespeare, Brother of the Rosy Cross.

Paper:   https://www.academia.edu/81465877/The_Fraudulent_Friedmans_The_Bacon_Ciphers_in_the_Shakespeare_Works

Video:   https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fc2ErlSmmjI&t=9s

For all the Riverbank Publications please see https://gorhambury.org/  a unique website with its stated purpose: To use technology in a novel way to expose the secret writings of Sir Francis to the world, presenting visualizations in such a way as to eliminate any possible doubt about Validity.

Screenshot (1885).png

Two words : Fascinating and Brilliant !

Thank you for sharing, A Phoenix.

  • Like 2
  • Thanks 1

image.png.b8c74f56d5551c745119c268cf9d3db8.png

Link to comment
Share on other sites

US INTELLIGENCE IS PRIVY TO THE SECRET THAT FRANCIS BACON IS SHAKESPEARE

There are a number of other classified publications on cryptology and intelligence which contain concealed cryptographic messages pertaining to Bacon’s authorship of the Shakespeare works. The three volume The Historical Background of the Signal Intelligence Agency by Theodore W. Richards was as stated on its title page ‘Prepared under the Direction of the ASSISTANT CHIEF OF STAFF, G-2 12 April 1946’ for the ‘United States Army Security Agency. Washington, DC’. Its author Professor Richards, America’s first Nobel laureate in chemistry, had previously headed up the Secret Ink Subsection in MI-8. The top secret work remained classified until it was ‘Declassified per Sec. 5, E. O. 11652 by Director, NSA/Chief, CSS, Date: 14 Mar ’77’.1 This top secret classified three-volume history commissioned by the Army Security Agency, predecessor of the National Security Agency, was written in 1946 for internal use by army intelligence personnel. The work has never been on public sale. 

1. Theodore W. Richards, Historical Background of the Signal Security Agency (Army Security Agency, Washington DC, 1946), all found and stated on its title page.

 

Paper:   https://www.academia.edu/81465877/The_Fraudulent_Friedmans_The_Bacon_Ciphers_in_the_Shakespeare_Works

Video:   https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fc2ErlSmmjI&t=9s

For all the Riverbank Publications please see https://gorhambury.org/  a unique website with its stated purpose: To use technology in a novel way to expose the secret writings of Sir Francis to the world, presenting visualizations in such a way as to eliminate any possible doubt about Validity.

richards-12896-portrait-medium.webp

  • Like 3
Link to comment
Share on other sites

US INTELLIGENCE IS PRIVY TO THE SECRET THAT FRANCIS BACON IS SHAKESPEARE

The first volume is divided into six sections under the heading ‘Volume One: Codes and Ciphers prior to World War 1’ with each section divided into a varying number of sub-sections. The first section examines and discusses the code and cipher systems of ‘The American Systems in the Revolutionary Period’ a pattern repeated for ‘The British Systems in the Revolution’; ‘The Federal Systems in the Civil War’; ‘The Confederate Systems in the Civil War’; ‘A Diplomatic System in the Civil War Period’; and ‘Cryptographic Progress 1865-1917’. In the second volume of the work Professor Richards devotes six pages to a discussion of the ‘Riverbank Laboratories’.

In its brief preceding chapter ‘The Founding of the Cipher Bureau’ leading up to the Riverbank Laboratories Professor Richards states ‘The entry of the United States into World War 1 on 6 April 1917 found the army ill-prepared both cryptographically and cryptanalytically to meet the great demands which immediately faced it.’1 The great responsibility for forming an organization to meet the pressing requirements of the War Department for the solution of intercepted cryptographic material fell to Major Van Deman, who later acquired the accolade ‘Father of Military Intelligence’.2 On entering the war the US was ill-prepared and the War Department ‘was forced to rely for cryptanalytic assistance at least for a time, on the volunteer efforts of a group of patriotic civilians. The fact that a major war had already been raging in Europe for nearly three years had apparently not much accelerated military preparations: Indeed, the policies of the Administration prior to 1917 had been based on strict neutrality, a view which in those days evidently pervaded the War Department as well as public opinion’3 In the following section ‘The Riverbank Laboratories’ Professor Richards explains that to remedy the situation an offer was received from ‘an institution known as Riverbank Laboratories’, staffed with scholars and scientists engaged in genetics and cryptography.

1. Theodore W. Richards, Historical Background of the Signal Security Agency (Army Security Agency, Washington DC, 1946), II, p. 1.

2. Ibid., II, p. 2.

3. Ibid., pp. 2-3.

Paper:   https://www.academia.edu/81465877/The_Fraudulent_Friedmans_The_Bacon_Ciphers_in_the_Shakespeare_Works

Video:   https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fc2ErlSmmjI&t=9s

For all the Riverbank Publications please see https://gorhambury.org/  a unique website with its stated purpose: To use technology in a novel way to expose the secret writings of Sir Francis to the world, presenting visualizations in such a way as to eliminate any possible doubt about Validity.

Seal_of_the_U.S._National_Security_Agency.svg.png

  • Like 4
Link to comment
Share on other sites

US INTELLIGENCE IS PRIVY TO THE SECRET THAT FRANCIS BACON IS SHAKESPEARE

 

In the Riverbank Department of Ciphers was William F. Friedman and Elizebeth Smith, soon to be Elizebeth Friedman.1 In addition to the Friedmans Professor Richards in passing refers to Dr J. A. Powell, formerly of the University of Chicago Press, but for some reasons he fails to mention that Dr Powell while working at Riverbank wrote The Greatest Work of Sir Francis Bacon (Riverbank Laboratories, 1916) endorsing the Bacon Bi-literal Cipher and its decipherment by Elizabeth Wells Gallup before proceeding to state:

The Department of Ciphers had been organized as an attempt to apply scientific procedures to the Shakespeare-Bacon problem. It was believed by Colonel Fabyan that in certain works of the late sixteenth and early seventeenth centuries there might be found a biliteral cipher which would afford proof that Francis Bacon, Lord, Verulam, was the author of the plays commonly attributed to William Shakespeare. No scientific results were obtained in this direction, but it was the good fortune of the Government that the staff at Riverbank was then engaged in cryptographic processes and also trained in the rigid techniques used in scientific research.2  

1. Theodore W. Richards, Historical Background of the Signal Security Agency (Army Security Agency, Washington DC, 1946), II, p. 3.

2. Ibid., II, p. 4.

Paper:   https://www.academia.edu/81465877/The_Fraudulent_Friedmans_The_Bacon_Ciphers_in_the_Shakespeare_Works

Video:   https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fc2ErlSmmjI&t=9s

For all the Riverbank Publications please see https://gorhambury.org/  a unique website with its stated purpose: To use technology in a novel way to expose the secret writings of Sir Francis to the world, presenting visualizations in such a way as to eliminate any possible doubt about Validity.

The Friedmans

FRIEDMANS.jpg

  • Like 4
Link to comment
Share on other sites

US INTELLIGENCE IS PRIVY TO THE SECRET THAT FRANCIS BACON IS SHAKESPEARE

In the remainder of this section Professor Richards briefly focused on an outline of the achievements of the Riverbank Cipher Department:

The achievements of the Riverbank staff were threefold:

a. Intercepted materials were submitted for solution to the experts there by various departments of the Government until the Cipher Bureau was well established in the fall of 1917.

b. A vigorous training program was inaugurated at Riverbank under the auspices of the War Department. A group of four officers was trained in cryptography for six weeks in October-November 1917; a second group of some sixty officers was trained in January-February 1918; while the third, and last, group, consisting of seven or eight, was trained in March-April 1918. Mr. Friedman prepared the instructional material, gave the lectures, and directed the school, the first of its kind in American history.

c. Research was conducted in the theory of cryptanalysis and an extensive series of technical papers was published by the Laboratories. Most of these were by Mr. Friedman…1

                                                                                                                                                 
There follows a detailed list of the technical monographs published by the Riverbank Laboratories, mostly written by Friedman. In this very carefully worded section only one single paragraph refers to the Baconian ciphers. Even though Professor Richards has more than one occasion to refer to Dr Powell, he fails to point out the salient fact he authored The Greatest Work of Sir Francis Bacon, and while he lists the technical monographs he makes no mention whatsoever of the Baconian publications issued by Riverbank Cipher Department. In fact, remarkably he even fails to mention its cipher department issued several works on Bacon Bi-literal Cipher, all of them endorsing it. But while the plain text single paragraph on the Baconian-Shakespeare authorship says one thing on the surface it conceals a very important piece of cipher information. The single paragraph in which Bacon is mentioned has 103 words: 103 Shakespeare in simple cipher, secretly revealing the concealed message that Bacon is Shakespeare.

1. Theodore W. Richards, Historical Background of the Signal Security Agency (Army Security Agency, Washington DC, 1946), II, pp. 5-6.

Paper:   https://www.academia.edu/81465877/The_Fraudulent_Friedmans_The_Bacon_Ciphers_in_the_Shakespeare_Works

Video:   https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fc2ErlSmmjI&t=9s

For all the Riverbank Publications please see https://gorhambury.org/  a unique website with its stated purpose: To use technology in a novel way to expose the secret writings of Sir Francis to the world, presenting visualizations in such a way as to eliminate any possible doubt about Validity.

Screenshot (1887).png

  • Like 1
  • Wow! 2
Link to comment
Share on other sites

23 hours ago, A Phoenix said:

US & FRENCH INTELLIGENCE & BACONIAN CIPHERS

It starts by stating that perhaps more has been written about the Bacon Bi-literal Cipher than any other single form of secret communication. The opening statement is followed by a description of the Bacon Bi-literal Cipher ‘the entire alphabet may be expressed by the two letters a and b in combinations of five’. What it does not say is whether or not this is the same combination of a and b letters for each letter of the alphabet as originally given by Bacon in De Augmentis. It is not. The example given here radically differs from the form in which it was first presented by Bacon.

The book I linked to elsewhere - this one 89B7193C-96C6-41EF-B43D-A886C1EAE5DF.jpeg.3301c5f4727e9f9d8d56c40198bac3bf.jpeg

is invaluable. Definitely worth a read.

  • Like 2
  • Thanks 2

 "For nothing is born without unity or without the point." amazon.com/dp/B0CLDKDPY8

Link to comment
Share on other sites

Create an account or sign in to comment

You need to be a member in order to leave a comment

Create an account

Sign up for a new account in our community. It's easy!

Register a new account

Sign in

Already have an account? Sign in here.

Sign In Now
×
×
  • Create New...