The Wisdom Of The Ancients Revisited :

An Appendix to the

Troilus and Cressida Puzzle


(Summer 2006) 

image courtesy of Annette Olsen


I had no sooner finished the Troilus and Cressida Puzzle than I began to experience the sensation of having overlooked something important. In the Troilus and Cressida Puzzle I argued that the puzzling textual history of Troilus and Cressida was, in fact, exactly what it suggests,-a puzzle. A puzzle designed to convey the information, to those capable of solving it, that Homer was the model on which the design of the First Folio was fashioned. Francis Bacon's Wisdom of the Ancients was published in 1609. This was the same year the two original quarto editions of Troilus and Cressida were published. And I argued the work was directly related to the publication of the Troilus and Cressida quartos because it gave information regarding the transmission by Homer of ancient knowledge from an age earlier than his, and this was paralleled by Bacon's transmission in the Shakespeare plays of ancient knowledge from an age earlier than his. Furthermore, the Wisdom Of The Ancients was designed with 32 parts (a Preface and 31 treatises on the ancient knowledge contained in 31 fables.) This meant that the First Folio with its Preface (The Tempest plus The Two Gentlemen of Verona) and its 31 ensuing plays (counting as 1 the histories with more than one part) had a matching design.

My sense of having overlooked something important gradually zeroed into this latter feature of the Wisdom of the Ancients. What did it mean? The information in the Preface to the Wisdom of the Ancients related to Bacon modeling the overall design of the First Folio after Homer. But if this was all there was, only an indeterminate number of examples of the wisdom of the ancients would have been required in the Wisdom of the Ancients. There would have been no need to structure the work with exactly the same number as the number of plays in the First Folio.

Perhaps Bacon had a more exact correspondence to the First Folio in the Wisdom of the Ancients? Maybe some of the fables had information relating to the plays in the First Folio? Perhaps they were even in the same respective order in the Wisdom of the Ancients as the respective order of the corresponding plays in the First Folio? If this was so, it would be very significant. In 1609 the publication of the First Folio was still 14 years away. At least four of the plays (Cymbeline, The Winter's Tale, The Tempest, and Henry VIII) had not even been written. So only the author could have possessed such knowledge. I made up the table below and began to compare the respective fables with the respective plays.

Wisdom of the Ancient


Shakespeare First Folio

Preface :(The Tempest & The Two Gentlemen of Verona)



The Merry Wives of Windsor

2.Typhon (Rebellion)

Measure For Measure

3.The Cyclops

Comedy Of Errors

4.Narcissus (self-love)

Much Ado About Nothing

5. River Styx (The Oath)

Love's Labor Lost

6.Pan (Nature)

A Midsummer Nights Dream

7.Perseus (War)

Merchant Of Venice

8.Endymion (a favorite)

As You Like It

9. Sister of the Giants (fame)

Taming Of The Shrew

10.Acteon and Pentheus (prying into divine mysteries)

All's Well That Ends Well

11.Orpheus (philosophy)

Twelfth Night

12.Coelum (beginnings)

The Winters Tale

13.Proteus (Matter)

King John (Saturn)

14.Mennon (youth too forward)

Richard II (Jupiter)

15. Tythonus (satiety)

King Henry IV (Mars)

16.Juno's Suitor (baseness)

King Henry V (Sun)

17.Cupid (atom)

King Henry VI (Venus)

18.Diomed (Persecution)

Richard III (Mercury)

19.Daedalus (mechanical skill)

King Henry VIII (Moon)

20.Ericthonius (Imposture)

Troilus and Cressida



22.Nemesis (revenge)

Titus Andronicus

23.Achelous (battle)

Romeo & Juliet

24.Dionysus (passions)

Timon Of Athens

25.Atalanta (gain)

Julius Caesar

26.Prometheus (the state of man)


27.Icarus (the middle way)


28.Sphinx (science)

King Lear

29. Proserpine (spirit)


30.Metis (counsel)

Anthony & Cleopatra

31.Sirens (conquest of pleasures)


I immediately noticed something very interesting. Fable (11) dealt with Orpheus. The corresponding play was Twelfth Night, and Twelfth Night also dealt with Orpheus. I had already discovered this, and had written an essay to demonstrate it.

Next I noticed that the corresponding play to Pan, or Nature, (fable 6) was A Midsummer Nights Dream. This seemed significant also. In A Midsummer Nights Dream (with its fairies and scenes in the woods outside of Athens) the nature theme obviously plays a big part.

So now I began to scan through the other fables in earnest, and to examine their relation with their corresponding plays. And, as I continued to scan them, I continued to discover correspondence after correspondence in item after item. I flashed to George C. Scott in his role as Patton in the scene in the movie of that name, where Patton having sent his Tanks forth in the great battle against the Panzers of Rommel, sees they are winning, and cries:

"Rommel, you magnificent bastard!!! I have read your book!!

(In my own defense, I insist this vanity was only momentary. I know very well that compared to Bacon my intellect is only a bug skating around on the surface of a pond. A mere bug after all, with no depth, and a very limited area. On the other hand, this also applies to the entire human race. Francis Bacon was absolutely sui generis.)

I continued examining the fables and their counterpart plays. When I finished, I found I had discovered relations between every single one of the fables and their corresponding plays. You don't have to take my word for it. Take a look:

(1) Cassandra and The Merry Wives Of Windsor

The fable of Cassandra says that Apollo, who had fell in love with Cassandra, was deluded and put off by her, yet fed with hopes. This is exactly what happens to Falstaff in The Merry Wives Of Windsor, although in the case of Falstaff, he fell into lust, instead of love (but doesn't everyone?). Falstaff was deluded and put off by Mistress Ford and Mistress Page, yet fed with hopes just as Apollo was in the fable.

(2) Typhon (rebellion) and Measure For Measure

Measure For Measure is an allegory of the angels who rebelled and fell from heaven. The fable of Typhon deals with rebellion.

(3) The Cyclops and The Comedy Of Errors

The fable of Cyclops tells the story of the Cyclops who, because of their crimes, were thrown into Tartarus. Tartarus was the lowest region of Hades, and what was Hades? According to Sallust in his Gods and the World, the story of Persephone being taken down to Hades by Pluto represented the descent of souls into the earth. Hades was the earth, the sublunary realm to which incarnated souls went when they descended into the material world. In my essay on The Comedy Of Errors I have shown that the play is an allegory dealing with the Orphic theology of the souls who, because of their crimes, were thrown into the earth (i.e., Hades). Empedocles, the ancient sage of Sicily, summarized the Orphic doctrine when he said:

"There is an oracle of Necessity, an ancient decree of the gods, eternal, sealed fast with broad oaths, that when one of the divine spirits whose portion is long life sinfully stains his own limbs with bloodshed, and following Hate has sworn a false oath , these must wander for thrice ten thousand seasons far from the company of the blessed, being born throughout the period into all kinds of mortal shapes, which exchange one hard way of life for another."

Therefore, there was an obvious correspondence between the fable of The Cyclops and The Comedy of Errors.

(4) Narcissus (self-love) and Much Ado About Nothing

The root of the reason that the proud Beatrice, in Much Ado About Nothing, spurns men is apparently because she is afflicted by self-love. Hero says of Beatrice in Much Ado About Nothing

" nature never fram'd a woman's heart
Of prouder stuff than that of Beatrice.
Disdain and scorn ride sparkling in her eyes,
Misprising what they look on; and her wit
Values itself so highly that to her
All matter else seems weak. She cannot love,
Nor take no shape nor project of affection
She is so self-endeared."

(5) The River Styx and Love's Labor Lost

In Love's Labor Lost the King, Berowne, Longaville, and Dumain take an oath that they will not see a woman for three years, eshrewing all thoughts of love, while spending their time in study. They are soon forsworn by the visit of the Princess, Rosaline, Maria, and Katharine, as a result of which the King's business makes its necessary that they see their visitors with whom they then proceed to fall in love. At the end of the play the lovely ladies say they will not trust to the oaths of love of the men, and will only accept their love if they spend a period of testing, "until the twelve celestial signs have brought about the annual reckoning." Fable 5 corresponds exactly to this theme since it deals with the oath of the River Styx which was the only solemn oath by which the gods irrevocably obliged themselves.

(6) Pan (Nature) and A Midsummer Night's Dream

Fable 6 deals with Pan who represents nature, and in the corresponding play and A Midsummer Night's Dream the world of nature has a predominant part.

(7) Perseus (War) and Merchant Of Venice

The Merchant of Venice deals with the ideas of the Kabbalists, whose central concept was that of the Tree of the Sefirot. And the basic idea of the Tree of the Sefirot was the idea of the two pillars , the pillar of the right hand side, and the pillar of the left hand side. The left hand pillar was the pillar of darkness, the right hand pillar the pillar of light. The doctrine of the Kabbalists had its origin in Southern France at the time of the Cathars, those devout dualists, and the doctrine of the Kabbalists was a dualist doctrine also. This doctrine goes back to Zoroaster and his doctrine of the war in all nature between the forces of light and the forces of darkness. The opposition between Antonio and Shylock symbolize this war in universal nature. Thus the correspondence of the fable of Perseus (War) with the Merchant of Venice.

(8) Endymion (a favorite) and As You Like It

The fables tells of the goddess Luna who fell in love with the shepherd Endymion, and would descend while he slept to enjoy his company. As You Like It has a pastoral setting with shepherds, and Orlando, who is enamored of Rosalind, calls on the moon, saying she has sway over his life in his first verse to Rosalind

"And thou, thrice-crowned Queen of Night, survey
With thy chaste eye, from thy pale sphere above,
Thy huntress' name that my full life doth sway."

(9) Sister of the Giants (fame) and Taming Of The Shrew

The main portion of Bacon's explanation of this fable has to do with those who rebel against those who would rule them, and The Taming Of The Shrew, in which Katharina rebels against the rule of Petruchio, certainly has this theme.

(10) Acteon and Pentheus and; Alls Well That Ends Well

Of this fable Bacon says that Pentheus specifically relates to delving into divine mysteries. This applies very well to Alls Well That Ends Well since it deals with the Third Eye which opens the doorway to the divine mysteries.

(11) Orpheus (philosophy) and; Twelfth Nigh

See my essay on Twelfth Night in which I demonstrate that it embodied an allegory dealing with Orpheus.

(12) Coelum (beginnings) and The Winters Tale

The Winters Tale is divided into two parts, the second of which is set in spring and denotes the new beginning after the depths of winter when Perdita was lost. But a beginning has the implicit idea of an ending, and hence the idea of cycles.

So we see in the fable of Coelum Bacon sets out the idea of the two cycles, the cycle of Saturn, matter, darkness and chaos, and the cycle of order Jupiter, immateriality, light, and order. This is a very significant design because it is the 12th fable, and also because Jupiter has a cycle of 12 years. In The Tempest there are two 12 year cycles, the cycle of Sycorax and her son Caliban which represent the cycle of Saturn, and the 12 cycle of Prospero who is equated with Jupiter. Note that Prospero says:

"To the dread rattling thunder
Have I given fire, and rifted Jove's stout oak
With his own bolt"

thus identifying him with Jupiter.

Like Zoroaster, the Cathars, and the Kabbalists, Bacon was a dualist. In the introductory verses to the First Folio, it is significant that the verse which makes reference to, "the dainty playes which made the Globe of heau'n and earth to ring", (i.e. the very verse which makes reference to the macrocosmic and microcosmic design of the First Folio) is the verse which displays the "AA" design above it, and this design applies to the dual twelve's, the heaven and earth design of the First Folio because the Comedies are the realm of light in the realm above on the left, and the Tragedies are the realm of matter in the realm below on the right. In the ancient cosmologies matter was always represented as dark or black:


The Merry Wives of Windsor

Troilus and Cressida

Measure For Measure

The Tragedy of Coriolanus

The Comedy Of Errors

Titus Andronicus

Much Ado About Nothing

Romeo and Juliet

Loves Labor Lost

Timon Of Athens

A Midsummer Nights Dream

Julius Caesar

The Merchant of Venice


As You Like It


The Taming Of The Shrew

King Lear

Alls Well That Ends Well


Twelfth Night

Anthony and Cleopatra

The Winters Tale


(13) Proteus (Matter) and King John (Saturn)

In fable 12 Bacons identifies Saturn as matter, "Coelum denotes the concave space, or vaulted roof that encloses all matter, and Saturn the matter itself, which cuts off all power of generation from his father; as one and the same quantity of matter remains invariable in nature". In fable 13 he explains Proteus as symbolizing matter. The fable corresponds to the play of King John which symbolizes Saturn, and also shows the beginning of another cycle. It is significant that in The Tempest at the end of the play Prospero is on the point of abandoning the island at which time the rule will revert back to Caliban.

(14) Memnon (a youth too forward) and Richard II (Jupiter)

In fable 14 Richard II represents Jupiter. In this fables, Memnon, is described as having beautiful armor, and "glittering outsides" suggesting a celestial body. In "The Star Guide" Robin Kerrod describes Jupiter as follows:

"Jupiter is by far the largest planet, and is covered with clouds that
reflect sunlight well. This adds up to its rivaling Mars in brightness...
Jupiter is easily distinguished because it is brilliant white."

In the fable of Memnon we are told that, "It is also reported, that the rays of the rising sun, striking his statue, used to give a lamenting sound." This, perhaps, refers to the fact that Jupiter disappears behind the sun in early November, i.e. symbolically dying in the rays of the sun. The fable also refers to Memnon as "one of those promising youths, like sons of the morning." After disappearing behind the sun in early November, Jupiter returns to view before dawn by early December.

(15) Tythonus (satiety)and King Henry IV (Mars)

In Henry IV the young prince is depicted as indulging in a wild and riotous life, but when his father dies and it comes time for him to take up the throne as King Henry V he immediately put all this behind him. Is this the result of satiety?

(16) Juno's Suitor (baseness) and King Henry V (Sun)

In the fable Bacon says:

"The poets tell us, that Jupiter, to carry on his love-intrigues, assumed many
different shapes; as of a bull, an eagle, a swan, a golden shower, &c.; but when he attempted Juno, he turned himself into the most ignoble and ridiculous creature,- even that of a wretched, wet, weather-beaten, affrighted, trembling and half-starved cuckoo.

The moral of this fable, says Bacon, is that people can only succeed in their courtship according to the nature and manner of the person they court, for if this person is of a haughty and contemptuous behavior they must entirely drop the character that carries the least show or worth or gracefulness. This is shown in Henry V after the war with France is concluded, when he carries out the provisions of the treaty that he shall marry the Princess Katharine of France. The Princess is a haughty lady accustomed to all the royal graces, whereas Henry is warrior, who knows nothing about courting. He says, "I know no ways to mince it in love, but directly to say 'I love you'…and so clap hands and a bargain. He confesses to having no skills in writing love verses, and says he might make a fine lover, "if I could win a lady at leap-frog, or by vaulting into my saddle with my armor on my back." By the blunt baseness of his manner he wins the lady.

In his Novum Organum Bacon says, "And for things that are mean or even filthy,-things which (as Pliny says) must be introduced with an apology,- such things, no less than the most splendid and costly, must be admitted into natural history. Nor is natural history polluted thereby; for the sun enters the sewer no less than the palace, yet takes no pollution. So before the battle with the French, Henry mingles with the rabble in his army in order to raise their spirits. And, even the phrase they use, suggest the sun, "a touch of Harry in the night".

A glance at the play of Henry V in the First Folio shows it is given a special éclat. A separate page with an epilogue precedes it with the archer emblem at the top of the page, and this is followed by a full page with the name of the characters in the play, and the "AA" device at the top of the page. Kings were often compared to the sun, and Henry V was 'Shakespeare's' ideal king.

(17) Cupid (atom)and King Henry VI (Venus)

Fable 17 dealt with cupid, the god of love, while play 17 dealt with Venus the goddess of love. King Henry VI represented the planet Venus.

(18) Diomed (Persecution) and King Richard III (Mercury)

In his description of the fable of Diomed, Bacon tells us that Diomed wounded the goddess of love and although unpunished for a time, was soon slain for his crime. Bacon says that the story of Diomed describes the nature and fate of a man who makes any religion the scope of his action and propagates it by fire and sword.

King Richard III kills King Henry, and helps to kill his son, and plots marry young Lady Anne who was the wife of the son so he can use this marriage as an aid in his campaign to seize the throne. Lady Anne know the hunchback Richard for what he is,- as a butcher and a devil, "a lump of foul deformity" and hates him as she hates hell. But as the corpse of the martyred king is being borne through the streets of London Richard stops the procession and with an effrontery that is beyond belief openly makes love to her in the London street. His mental powers of deception and persuasion are so great that he gradually beats her down, and persuades her that he had repented of all his evil actions of the past, and brings her to the point where she will wear the ring he gives her. But once he is alone Richard feels nothing but contempt for Lady Anne. Richard next implements a campaign of terror and murder while at the same time assuming a cloak of piousness. When a delegation, composed of the chief citizens of London, some to him, they find him deep in prayer between two bishops. And so by these stratagems he obtains the throne. But his villainies catch up with him and it is not long before he is killed in turn.

Richard's actions against Lady Anne symbolize wounding the goddess of love, and his subsequent actions make religion the scope of his action which he propagates by fire and sword. The planet Mercury is the planet of mental powers and it was in this that Richard excelled.

(19) Daedalus (mechanical skill) and King Henry VIII (Moon)

Bacon speaks of the "abominable industry and destructive genius" of Daedalus, a description which certainly applies to King Henry VIII, who was, as Bacon said elsewhere, "a bloody man". The play, King Henry VIII, applies to the moon in that, as Marchette Chute said, "It is almost more of a pageant than a play, and its chief purpose is to describe the events that led up to the birth of King Henry's daughter, the future Queen Elizabeth." In the cult that grew up around Elizabeth she was often equated with the goddess of the moon. The sonnet written at her death, said:

The mortal moon hath her eclipse endured,
And the sad augurs mock their own presage,
Incertainties now crown themselves assured,
And peace proclaims olives of endless age.

(The long war with Spain ended when James came to the throne.)

(20) Ericthonius (imposture)and Troilus and Cressida

Vulcan raped Minerva who then gave birth to Ericthonius, whose body from the middle up was comely and well-proportioned, but from the middle down shrunken and deformed. Conscious of this defect Ericthonius invented chariots, in order to carry out the imposture of showing only the visible portion of his body to give the appearance that it was all comely while concealing the deformed lower part.

Troilus and Cressida depicts everything in the drama whose immediate source is Chaucer, but which is ultimately taken from Homer as imposture. The war fought supposedly for the highest of motives, over the most beautiful woman in the world, is actually fought for a "a whore and a cuckold." The glorious heroes of myth are impostures. They are depicted just the opposite of how they are portrayed in Homer. Cressida, the faithful love of Troilus is an imposture. She proves to be completely faithless. As for her uncle Pandarus who promotes what purports to be the chaste and happy union of a faithful and loving couple and it is from his name that we get the word panderer. The play itself is not what it seems, it is an imposture, whose concealed purpose is to show that the First Folio was modeled after Homer, the same Homer of whom Bacon said in the preface to The Wisdom Of The Ancients, "If I were assured they [the myths transmitted by Homer] first flowed from those later times and authors that transmit them to us, I should never expect any thing singularly great or noble from such an origin."

(21) Deucalion (restitution) and Coriolanus

In fable 21 Bacon says:

"The poets tell us, that the inhabitants of the old world being totally destroyed by the universal deluge excepting Deucalion and Pyrrha, these two, desiring with zealous and fervent devotion to restore mankind, received this oracle for answer, that 'they should succeed by throwing their mother's bones behind them.' This at first cast them into great sorrow and despair, because as all things were leveled by the deluge, it was in vain to seek their mother's tomb; but at length they understood the expression of the oracle to signify the stones of the earth, which is esteemed the mother of all things."

A major theme in Coriolanus is the dominant control of his mother over Coriolanus.

(22) Nemesis (revenge) and Titus Andronicus

The fable of Nemesis deals with revenge and there is an exact correspondence in Titus Andronicus which also deals with revenge. 

(23) Achelous (battle) and Romeo & Juliet

Romeo and Juliet represent, respectively, the sun and the moon. The constant symbol of the alchemists was the battle between the opposing forces of the sun and the moon, so this is an appropriate connection.

(24) Dionysus (passions) and Timon Of Athens

Timon of Athens is commonly viewed as a depiction of misanthropy, but it might better be viewed as someone whose passions take possession of him. When Timon's fair weather friends desert him Timon is beset with rage, hate, anger, loathing, and the other passions that result from this treatment by the people who masqueraded as his friends.

(25) Atalanta (gain) and Julius Caesar

The desire for gain by any other name is ambition. Julius Caesar for Bacon was the one to whom this applied above all other. Bacon said that Julius Caesar was the most excellent spirit of the world (his ambition reserved). Caesar's ambition is emphasized in the play Julius Caesar, and Cymbeline (Act III, Scene 1) refers to Caesar's ambition:

"Which swell'd so much that it did almost stretch The sides o' the world"

(26) Prometheus (the state of man) and Macbeth

Bacon says Prometheus, "clearly and expressly signifies Providence." And he says:

"But this watchful, provident temper, is attended with a deprivation of numerous pleasures, and the loss of various delights, whilst such men debar themselves the use even of innocent things, and what is still worse, rack and torture themselves with cares, fears, and disquiets; being bound fast to the pillar of necessity, and tormented with numberless thoughts (which for their swiftness are well compared to an eagle), that continually wound, tear, and gnaw their liver or mind, unless, perhaps, they find some small remission by intervals, or as it were at nights; but then new anxieties, dreams, and fears, soon return again, as it were in the morning."

The correspondence of this fable with Macbeth couldn't be clearer. Note particularly the words of Macbeth:

"Methought I heard a voice cry, 'Sleep no more,
Macbeth does murder sleep'-the innocent sleep,
Sleep that knits up the ravell'd sleave of care,"


"But let the frame of things disjoint, both the worlds suffer,
Ere we will eat our meal in fear and sleep
In the affliction of these terrible dreams
That shake us nightly."

(27) Icarus (the middle way) and Hamlet

There is an obvious correspondence between the story of Icarus who comes to destruction because he does not keep to the middle way, and that of Hamlet whose destruction results because his condition is a reflection of the tilting of the earth's axis because of the failure of the planet to keep the middle way.

(28) Sphinx (science) and King Lear

I had written an essay showing that King Lear contained an allegory dealing with alchemy. But the plays have more than one level of meaning. Robert Bechtold Heilman in his book, "This Great State : Image and Structure in King Lear" analyzed all the patterns of imagery and concluded that, in the final analysis, King Lear was a play about looking at and assessing the entire range of human experience. That is, in the final analysis according to Heilman, it was a play about science.

(29) Proserpine (spirit) and Othello

Bacon interprets the fable of Proserpine as the description of spirit captured in matter. In the ancient cosmologies matter was always symbolized as black, and even in the 12th century A.D. Bernardus Silvestris in his Cosmographia retained this symbolism. Spirit, the opposite to matter, is symbolized as white. Matters smothers spirit. So in Othello, Othello, the black man, is depicted as smothering the white woman, Desdemona. This 'Shakespeare' play has an obvious correspondence to the Bacon fable.

(30) Metis (counsel) and Anthony & Cleopatra

The fable of Metis deals with the birth of Pallas Athena, the Goddess of Wisdom, from the brain of Zeus. In Anthony & Cleopatra, Cleopatra represents the goddess Isis. The black goddess Isis represents in one of her aspect the black goddess Sophia, the Goddess of Wisdom. 

(31) Sirens (pleasures)and Cymbeline

Although this fable is labeled as Sirens, or pleasure, it actually deals with the conquest of the pleasures, and this implies the conquest and overcoming of the entire cycle of incarnation. In a fragment from The Styx, a lost work of the Neoplatonist, Porphyry, preserved by Stobaeus, we are told that Homer presents the whole cyclical progress and rotation of transmigration under the allegory of the witch, Circe. "The urge for pleasure makes them long for their accustomed way of life in and through the flesh", says Porphyry, "and so they fall back into the witch's brew of genesis. So when souls finally achieve conquest over pleasure they also achieve conquest over necessity for their cycle of incarnation in the earth.

This corresponds exactly to Cymbeline because the plays deals with the final termination of the cycle of incarnation. This story has its origin in the symbolic story of the Self in the Vedanta as related in the Sankhya Sutras:

"There was a king's son, once upon a time, who, having been born under an unlucky star, was removed from the capital while still a babe, and reared by a primitive tribesman. A mountaineer, outside the pale of the Brahman civilization. He, therefore, lived for many years under the false notion: 'I am a mountaineer.' In due time, however, the old king died. And, since there was nobody eligible to assume the throne, a certain minister of state, ascertaining that the boy had been cast away into the wilderness some years before was still alive, went out, searched the wilderness, traced the youth, and, having found him, instructed him: 'Thou art not a mountaineer; thou art the King's Son.' Immediately, the youth abandoned the notion that he was an outcaste and took to himself his royal nature. He said to himself: 'I am a king.'

The allegory in Cymbeline is not that obscure. The cycle is shown by the two sons, and then by Posthumus and Imogen, going forth from the court of Cymbeline and then returning to it at the end of the play. Bacon uses the traditional tale from Vedanta of the Self which goes through its cycle of samsara believing it is of low birth until, at the end, it realizes its true nature. Within this frame he shows the stages which led to the end of the cycle when the samsaric cycle or cycle of reincarnation is terminated.



What does all of this mean?

The Wisdom of the Ancients, written by Francis Bacon in 1609, 14 years before the Shakespeare First Folio was published, gave information regarding the transmission by Homer of ancient knowledge from an age earlier than his. This was paralleled by Bacon's transmission in the Shakespeare plays of ancient knowledge from an age earlier than his. The Wisdom of the Ancients was written in the same year as Troilus and Cressida, and had Homer at its basis just as did Troilus and Cressida. It was an integral part of the Troilus and Cressida puzzle. It signaled the reader that the First Folio was modeled after Homer and his works. This modeling of the First Folio after Homer was much more detailed and exact than just the transmission of ancient knowledge by Homer. The First Folio had its 24 divisions just as did Homer's works; a similar intricate structure, and many special corresponding details to Homer's works.

Moreover, each of the ensuing fables in the Wisdom of the Ancients has information relating them to a corresponding play in the First Folio. And these relations between the Wisdom of the Ancients and the First Folio correspond exactly both in their number, and in their sequence.

The Wisdom of the Ancients, written by Francis Bacon in 1609, is a template of the First Folio, which was not published until 14 years after Bacon wrote the Wisdom of the Ancients. This provides the most certain and conclusive proof conceivable that the author of the 'Shakespeare' works was Francis Bacon.

For Baconians, and all other gourmet types, who like their Bacon crisp, this is the day of Crispian:

"This day is call'd the feast of Crispian:
He that outlives this day, and comes
safe home
Will stand a-tip-toe when this day is
And rouse him at the name of Crisp

As for the Stratfordians, Mark Twain said it best:

"Stratfordians suck."

Okay, maybe Mark Twain didn't say that. Maybe, it was someone else.But, even if someone else didn't say it, they should have.

As for the Oxfordians, - when they are gone and forgotten, nothing will be lost, after all, a room temperature I.Q. is a heat wave for the Oxfordians.

And then there are the Marlovians (the people who believe Christopher Marlowe did not actually die on the day he was killed, but came back [like the ghost of Hamlet's father] to write all of the 'Shakespeare' works). They must be given this,- they are half right. The man who wrote the Marlowe works did write the 'Shakespeare' works. But to give the Marlovians their just dues,- everyone knows a bird with only one wing can't fly.

On this very day, this day of Crispian, the ghost of old Durning-Lawrence stands before us once again, like the ghost of old Marley in Dicken's Christmas Carol, rattling his chains, and wailing:



See : The Bacon-Shakespeare Essays of Mather Walker






























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