THE LIFE AND TIMES 

OF 

FRANCIS BACON

by

JAMES SPEDDING
1878

By Houghton, Osgood & CO.

VOL 1

709pages

 

PUBLISHERS' NOTE


"The Philosophical, Literary, and Professional Works of Francis Bacon," in seven volumes,octavo, was issued in England in 1857-59, under the editorship of Messrs. Spedding, Ellis, and Heath, and reprinted in this country with the sanction and aid of Mr. Spedding, in fifteen volumes, crown octavo. The plan of the English edition intended a second series, to contain the editorship of Mr. Spedding alone, followed in 1861-1874, and occupied seven volumes, uniform with the previous series. It was so far a distinct work as to take on an independent title, as follows : 

"The Letters and the Life of Francis Bacon, including all his Occasional Works, namely, Letters, Speeches, Tracts, State Papers, Memorials, Devices, and all authentic writings not already printed among his Philosophical, Literary,or Professional Works : newly collected and set forth in chronological order, with a Commentary, biographical and historical; by James Speddding."
This descriptive title indicates the editor's purpose to make the later division of Bacon's writings as exhaustive as the earlier; the character of the writings led him to present them in a different manner. In the first series, critical and historical prefaces and notes precede and accompany the separate works; in the second, a biographical and historical commentary forms a frame in which are set the letters and occasional writings, so that while the book is entitled "The Letters and the Life of Francis Bacon," not far from one half of the whole book consists of Mr. Spedding's commentary. As Bacon entered the service of the state when twent-four years old, and remained in it until his death, and as the years included by his life, 1560-1626, covered one of the notable periods of English history, it is plain that the resulting work must be a contribution both to the personal histor of Bacon and to the political history of England.

Covering this field and displaying so minute a criticism, "The Letters and the Life of Bacon" is a comprehensive and suggestive work, which no thorough student of Bacon and his times can afford to neglect. But the comprehensiveness of the plan has stood in the way of a republication of the book in this country. The number of scholars who can give themselves to so full an examaination of the subject is necessarily small, and for such the original edition remains. But the recent issue here of a Popular Editon of Bacon's works, in two volumes gathered from the complete edition of in fifteen volumes, has met with so hearty a reception from the public as to encourage the publishers in the belief that there is a large body of readers interested in Bacon and his writings, who would gladly avail themselves of an opportunity to read a biography which should present the result of the most thourough criticism and inquiry, and include so much of contemporary history as is needed to give the Life its proper setting.
With this view the present work has been planned and executed. Mr. Spedding, in the original edition, gave every scrap of Bacon's writings, not included in teh previous series, which he could discover, adding also various papers conjecturally Bacon's and supplied the reader with all necessary apparatus for an intelligent apprehension of the occasion, scope, and influence of these writings. His plan led him into many subjects which have only an antiquarian interest, but it also required hm to examine and state anew many points of English history which which can never lose their interest for Engish and American readers. The editor of this American abridgement has followed Mr. Spedding's order and authority in all points; his part has been to retain those portions which he judges to be of most interest to American readers. The result is that the relations of the two parts of the work has become the main thing,and the writings are introduced as illustrating that. Hence, the book is no longer the Letters and the Life, for the letters form a considerable portion of the original work, but in any popular and brief life of Bacon, the majority of them are not essential to the reader, although necessary to the writer.

The task of condensation was undertaken with Mr. Spedding's permission, but without any suggetion from him as to its scope. When the selections had been made, he examined them with view of their being read as a separate Life, inserted what he thought wanting in the way of connection or explanation, and corrected such errors or supplied such deficiences as he had discovered since the publication of his original work. The book, therefore, as it now stands, may be regarded as embodying the editor's conception of what would be chosen by an American reader who should judiciously skip in his reading of the original work, and Mr. Spedding's final literary revision. For the selection (though modified here and there according to Mr. Spedding's suggestions) the editor is responsible. The text is wholly Mr. Spedding's.

With regard to the specific division into chapters, and the selection of foot-notes, the editor has used his discretion, without recourse to Mr. Spedding. In the original work, the division was into books, chapters and sections. In this, the order of books has been followed, the section divisions have been dropped, and the chapters have been reformed to meet the necessities of an abridgement which sometimes accepted an entire chapter, sometimes combined several chapters into one. In selecting the footnotes, the editor's plan has been to retain generally those which supplement the text, and a few which refer to authorities not accessible , or are introduced to enable students to verify statements in the text. The general reader must and will accept Mr. Spedding's word in a work of this kind; if he wishes for final authorities , he will find abundant help in his search by a reference to Mr. Spedding's original work.

CONTENTS
OF THE FIRST VOLUME

____

BOOK 1.

Chapter I.
AD. 1560-1584

Birth. ParentsCircumstances and Impressions of Boyhood Residence at Cambridge, Ideas and Aspirations with Regard to the Advancement of Knowledge, Three leading Objects of Interest, Residence in France with the English Ambassador, Condition of Europe at the Time, Death of his Father, and Commencement of Law Studies at Gray's Inn, Application for Employment in the Queen's Service, Admitted Utter Barrister, Occupations at Grays Inn., pp.1-13

Chapter II
AD. 1584-1586

Commencement of Public Life, M.P. for Malcombe in the Parliament of 1584, Unanimity of Parties in Measures for the Safety of the Queen's Person, Strength of the Opposition on Church Questions, State of the Question between the Noncomformists and the Government, Orthodoxiolatry, Great Petition, Conference with the Bishops, Lady Bacon's Application to Burghley for some Furtherance in his professional career, Contemporary Criticism of his Behavior, Burghley's Admonition, Letter to Lord Burghley, Full Admission to the Bench, pp.14-24


Chapter III
1586- 1589

Character of the Act passed in the last Parliament for Defense of the Queen's Person, Conspiracy and Trial of Mary, Queen of Scotts, A new Parliament summoned, Execution of Mary, Conduct of Elizabeth, Proceedings in Parliament, Subsidy voted, Benevolence proposed and offered, but declined, Committal of Members to the Tower for raising Questons concerning Ecclessiastical Govenment and Right of Free Speech in the Lower House, Defeat of the Spanish Armada, Apprehension of another Invasion, A new Parliament summoned, A Double Subsidy granted for the first time, with Request for a Declaration of War against Spain, Progress of Disputes between High Churchmen and Nonconformists, Martin Marpelate, Bacon's "Advertisement touching the Controversies of the Church of England," Effect of the Controversies upon opinion abroad, Importance of making Elizabeth's dealings with the Religious parties in England properly understood in France, Letter to Archbishop Whitgift, Probability that Bacon wrote the letter from Sir Francis Walsingham to M. Critoy, The Letter, stating the Relation of the Government to Papists and to Puritans, Possible Connection of Anthony Bacon with M. Critoy's Communcation, Clerkship of the Counsel in the Star Chamber granted to Bacon in Reversion, pp. 25-49

Chapter IV
1590-1592

Beginning of acquaintance between Bacon and the Earl of Essex, The Promise given by the Earl at the Beginning of his Career, Anthony Bacon's Return from abroad, Objects, Hopes, and Wishes, Letter to Lord Burghley, The Two Brothers together, Lady Bacon at Gorhambury, Her interview with Captain Allen, Her letter to Anthony on his Return, Lady Bacon and her sons, Bacon at Twickenham, His relations to Essex, Letter to Thomas Phillips, Bacon's contribution to the Celebration of the Queen's Day, 1592, Publication of Parsons' "Responsio" and Bacon's "Observations on a Libel." pp. 50-68

Chapter V.

A.D. 1593

Fresh Intrigues between Spain and Scotland, Apprehensions of Invasion, A new Parliament summoned, Relations between the Crown, the Lords,, andthe Commons, Certain Points of Constitutional Usage not yet fully established, Attempts on the part of the Crown and the Upper House to encroach, Committal of Peter Wentworth and others, for introducing a Petition relating to the Sucession, Motion for Committee of Supply, Bacon's Speech in support of the Motion, Grant of a Double Subsidy recommeded by the Lords, Intimation from the Lord Treasurer that the proposed Grant was not sufficent, and demand of another Conference to discuss the Matter, Bacon's Objection to joint Discussion, as against the Privileges of the Lower House, The Proposal declined, The Queen prepares to retreat; and the Pretension of the Lords is silently withdrawn, Grant of three Subsidies, payable in four years, proposed, Bacon's Speech of Amendment on the Motion, Orginal Motion carried in Committee, and agreed to without Division on the Whole House, Progress of Taxation, Bill passed and presented to the Queen, Balance of Loss and Gain to the Crown upon the whole Proceeding, Conduct of Coke as Speaker, The Queen's Message to the House delivered by him, Right of the Crown to determine what Subjects should be discussed in Parliament and what not, Competition between Bacon and Coke for the Attorney Generalship, their Pretensions declared, Consequences of Bacon's speech on the Subsidy Bill, Intimation of the Queen's Displeasure, Letter to the Lord Treasurer in excuse of his Speech, Bacon forbidden to come into the Queen's Presence, Proposes to give up Court and Law, and betake himself and to other pursuits, Letter to the Earl of Essex, Essex persuades him to postpone his Resolution and promises to get him made Attorney General,Bacon endeavors to engage Burghley in the Cause by the Mediation of his Sons, Letter to Sir Robert Cecil, Sir Robert's Advice, Progress of Essex's Mediation, Bacon takes Occasion to state his Case for himself, Letter to the Earl of Essex, Letter to the Queen, The Queen reported to be appeased, pp. 69-107

 

Chapter VI.

1593-1594

Importance to Bacon of having the Question settled whichever way, Pecuniary Difficulties, Proposed Relief through the Sale of an Estate, Lady Bacon's Consent necessary, Conditions required by her, Letter from Lady Bacon to Anthony Bacon, Earl of Essex sworn a Privy Councillor, Relation between him and the Bacons, Progress of Essex's Mediation in Favor of Bacon, Disposition of Burghley, Still no Resolution taken in regard to the Attorneyship, Bacon's first Pleadings in the King's Bench and Exchequer, Progress of Canvass for the Attorneyship, Conversation between Essex and Sir Robert Cecil, Conspiracy of Dr. Lopez to poison the Queen, Coke to be Attorney General, Bacon the likeliest Candidate for the Solicitorship, if the Impression of his Speech on the Subsidy Bill were removed, Letter to the Earl of Essex, The Queen shows signs of relenting, Bacon begins to be employed in Business of the Learned Counsel, Appointed to go to the North on State Service, Letter to the Queen,Takes his M. A. Degrees at Cambridge, Fragments of a Discourse touching Intelligence and the Safety of the Queen's Person, Conditions of the Time, and Duties of a Crown Lawyer, State of Elizabeth's Council Table, Bacon continues to be employed in Examinations, Nature of an Examination upon Interrogatories, Money Matters, Debtor and Creditor Account between Anthony and Francis, Holiday Occupations, grave and gay, Merry Christmas at Gray's Inn, "Gesta Grayorum." The Prince of Purpoole in Council, Speeches of the Six Councillors, Relation of the Composition to Bacon's serious Speculations, pp. 108-154

 

Chapter VII
1594-1595, January-November

Bacon's Resolution to give up the Suit for the Solicitorship and go abroad, Essex's Attempt to bring the Matter to a Crisis, Bacon sent for to the Court, Letter to Anthony Bacon, Enclosure to Sir Robert Cecil, Appointment still in Suspense, and Bacon still a Suitor, Letter to Foulke Greville, Bacon again reminded of his Old Offense in the Matter of the Subsidy Bill in 1593, and again tenders the old Excuse, Serjeant Fleming appointed Solicitor, Probable Cause of the Queen's Long Indecision and final. Resolution, Essex's Disappointment and his Munificence towards Bacon, Grant from the Crown to Bacon of the Lease of certain lands at Twickenham,, in Reversion, Letter to the Earl of Essex, Apprehensions and Warnings, Essex in full Favor again, Celebration of the Anniversary of the Queen's Ascession, Bacon's Position at this time, pp. 155-173

BOOK II

Chapter I.

1595-1597

Literary Work : "Formularies and Elegancies," "Essays," etc., Projected Attack on the Spainish Fleet and Coasts, Qualifications of the Earl of Essex for Command, Expedition against Spain, Essex Commander of the Forces by Land, Capture of Cadiz, Position of Essex, Letter to the Advice of Essex, Occupations, "Maxims of the Law," "Essays," "Colours of Good and Evil," "Meditations Sacrae," Essex at Court, Quarrels and Reconciliations, Made Master of the Ordiance, Death of Sir William Hatton, Bacon's Project of Marriage with the Widow, Another Expedition against Spain, Essex Commander-in-Chief both by Land and Sea, Letter to the Earl of Essex, Inquiry concerning the fees exacted by Mr. Mill, Clerk of the Star Chamber, The Island Voyage, Plan and Conduct of the Expedition; Causes of Failure, Why Essex took the Fleet to St. Michael's when his business was to intercept the Passage of Tercecira; and why the Capture of Fayal by Raleigh was not mentioned in the official report of the Voyage, The English Coast in Danger, The Spanish Fleet in the Channel dispersed and disabled by a Storm, Return of the English Fleet, Essex's Grievances, pp.174-203


Chapter II.

1597--98

A new Parliament, Decorous and dignified Proceeding of the Government, Postponement of Motion for Supply till all the principal Commonwealth Measures had been introduced, Relief of the Poor, Maintenance of Husbandry, Grant of three Subsidies payable in three years passed without a dissentient Voice, Jealousies and Discontents of the Earl of Essex, The Lord Admiral created Earl of Nottingham, Question of Precedence, Essex made Earl Marshall, Sir Robert Cecil's Negotiation in France, Irish Affairs, Truce with the Earl of Tyrone, A letter of Advice to the Earl of Essex to take upon him the Care of Irish Causes when Mr. Secretary Cecil was in France, Terms offered to Tyrone, His Exception, Bacon's Advice asked for by Essex, A Letter of Advice to the Earl of Essex,, upon the first treaty with Tyrone, 1598, before the Earl was nominated for the Charge of Ireland, Tyrone pardoned, Measures of Precaution neglected, Progress of Negotiation in France, Essex and the Queen, The Great Quarrel, Letter to the Earl of Essex, Altered Relation between Essex and the Queen, pp. 204-231

 

Chapter III.
1598-1599

Bacon arrested for Debt, Letter to Sir Robert Cecil, 24th of September, 1598, Letter to Lord Keeper Egerton, More Tower Employment, Conspiracy of Edward Squire, Credibility of the Story, Irish Affairs, Breach of the Treaty by Tyrone, Siege of Blackwater, Defeat of Sir Henry Bagnall and spread of the Rebellion, Essex becomes more submissive and is admitted again to see the Queen, Death of Sir Richard Bingham, Necessity of a great Effort to reconquer Ireland, Lord Montjoy nominated for the Charge, Nomination canceled by the Influence of Essex, who undertakes the Task himself, Bacon, being applied to for Advice, endeavors unsuccessfully to dissuade him from going, Largeness of the Authority stipulated for by Essex, Bacon's Uneasiness, Letter of Advice to my Lord of Essex immediately before going to Ireland, Misgivings with regard to Essex's Purposes, Tone of his Letters to the Council, Demands and Complaints, Behavior before he arrived at the Scene of Action, Proceedings upon his Arrival, Disposition of the Rebel Forces, March through Munster, and return to Dublin with the army half wasted away, Profess an Intention to march against Tyrone in Ulster, but wants a Reinforcement of two thousand Men, Disaster of Sir Conyers Clifford, March into Ulster, State of the Army, Advice to the Captains, Meeting with Tyrone; Parley, and Truce, General result of the Campaign, Difficulty of believing that Essex's first object was to put an End to the Rebellion, Conjecture as to his real Design, The Queen Demands Explanation, and in the mean time commands him to stay and wait for his Instructions, Essex's difficulty, Being unable to explain the grounds of his Proceeding except in Person, he proposes to return to England at the head of his Army; but by Advice of Band of Captains, His sudden Appearance at Nonsuch and Reception by the Queen, Bacon , hearing that Essex has been commanded to keep his Chamber, repairs to Nonsuch. Letter to the Earl of Essex, Bacon's Account of their Interview, and of the Advice he gave him, His Ignorance of Essex's real Position, pp. 232-274

 

Chapter IV.

1599-1600

Spirit of Essex's Followers, Danger of a violent Rescue avoided by the Course which the Queen took with him, Committed to the Custody of the Lord Keeper, His Professions, His real Object in coming over, His reluctance to disclose the Conditions demanded by Tyrone, Consequences of the Disclosures when it came, The Queen's Reasons for being disasatisfied with the Earl's story, Strange News from Ireland, Popular Misapprehension of the Part which Bacon had taken in the Matter, Violence threatened, His absence from the Star Chamber when the Declaration was made, Essex still at York House, How Employed, Essex's position, His secret Negotiations with the King of Scots, Part taken by Lord Montjoy, Object of the Intrigue, Essex recommended by his Friends to attempt an Escape into France; but refuses to lead the life of a Fugitive, Montjoy appointed to the Command to Ireland, Renewed Proposition to the King of Scots for the Arrangement of some joint Action between the Army in Scotland, the army in Ireland, and the Earl's Partisans in England, to compel a Declaration as to the Sucession., The King of Scots not prepared, Essex urges Montjoy to proceed with the design, who declines, Essex allowed to return to his own House under charge of a Keeper, The Queen having no suspicion of these things, resolves to bring the Case of Essex to a formal Hearing, Judicial Proceeding at York House, Composition of the Court and Form of Proceeding, Part assigned to Bacon, Sentence of the Court, Bacon's Advice to the Queen, His Unsuccess, Essex released from his Keeper, and ultimately restored to full Liberty pp.275-297


|
Chapter V.

1600, July -1601, February

Bacon's Part in the Proceeding at York House, His dealings with and for the Earl during the next two Months, Letter to the Earl of Essex, 20th of July, 1600, The Earl's answer, Letters drawn up for him by Bacon, The Objects in View, Bacon's advice followed for a while, The Effects of it, Essex's Dangers and Secret Fears, Contrast between the Temper in which he affected to be and the Temper in which he really was, Change in the Queen's feelings towards him and the Causes of it,, Monopoly Patent not renewed, Bacon's Influence at an end, Private Affairs, Preparation for his Double Reading at Gray's Inn, Payment of Pressing Debts, Essex, returning to his former Projects, resolves to carry his Ends by Force, Unsuccessul Attempt to engage Montjoy in the Action, Renewed Intrigues with King of Scots, Preparations for suprising and overpowering the Court, Message from the Council, Sudden Change in the Plan of Action, Message fromt the Queen, Treatment of the Messengers, Endeavor to get Help in the City, Proclamation, Flight on Ludgate Hill, The Whole Party surrounded in Essex House and forced to Surrender at Discretion, Proceedings of the Council, Investigations and Ultimate Discovery of the Whole Plot, Bacon's Part, Arraignment of Essex, His intended Defense, Opening of the Case by the Queen's Council, Account of the MS. from which the History of the Trial is taken, Evidence of the Tumult at Essex House, The Lord Chief Justice's Deposition, The Proceeding how jusified by Essex, Evidence of the preliminary Consultations and Preparations, Sir Ferdinando Gorge sent for, Unreasonable Digressions, Pretext of personal Danger : how justified., Sir Walter Ralegh's Deposition, Story that the Kingdom was to be sold to the Spaniard : how justified., Sir Robert Cecil and Sir William Knolly's., Desultory and Disorderly setting forth of the Evidence, Bacon's First Speech, Essex's Retort and unsuccessful Attempt to draw Bacon into a personal Altercation, His successful Reply to Coke's Charge of Hypocrisy in Religion., Southampton's Defense., Opinion of the Judges, Coke's Argument, Bacon's second Speech, Verdict and Sentence, Errors in the Management of the Case by Coke,and inadequate Impression on the Public Mind, Chamberlain's Account of the Trial. pp. 298- 342

 

Chapter VI.

1601, February-April

Essex's Confession of his own Guilt, and Information against his Associates: how induced and of what Nature, His behavior on the Scaffold, Trial of Sir John Davis, Bacon's Speech, Bacon commanded to draw up a Narrative of the Treason for the Information and Satisfaction of the Public, Misconception of the Character of this Narrative by the Next Generation, Groundlessness of the Charge brought against Bacon by Mr. Jardine, The Declaration meant and believed by its Authors to be a scrupulously veracious Narrative, The one considerable Error in Bacon's Narrative, Probable Origin of the Error, The Substantial Truth of his Story confirmed by the Correction of it, Upon a fair review of Bacon's Conduct toward Essex from first to last no Fault to be found with any part of it. pp. 343-361


BOOK III

Chapter I.

1601, April-December

Altercation between Coke and Bacon in the Exchequer, Letter to Mr. Secretary Cecil, 29th of April, 1601, Letter of Expostulation to the Attorney General, Death of Anthony Bacon, His Character and Services, Story told of him by Sir Henry Wotton accounted for, Fines and Pardons of the Persons engaged in Essex's conspiracy, Sum assigned to Bacon out of Catesby's Fine, The Queen and the Monopolies, Occupation of Kinsale in Ireland by the Spaniards, A New Parliament Summoned, Bacon's Views as to the Business of Parliament, Grant of Four Subsidies, payable in three years and a half, Commencement of the Attack upon Monopolies, Speech in the House against a Bill for the Explanation of the Common Law in certain Cases of Letters Patents, Bill Committed, Speech in Committee against the same, Motion for a Petition to the Queen for Leave to pass an Act making Monopolies of no more Force than they are at the Common Law, Seconded by Bacon; but no Decision taken, Cecil's Interference, The Queen's Message, Proclamation to suspend the execution of Monopoly Patents till tried by Common Law, Satisfaction of the House, The Queen's last Speech to her People. pp. 362-391

Chapter II.

1601-1603

Money Difficulties, Mortgage of Twickenham Park, Defeat of the Spanish Forces in Ireland, Bacon writes to Cecil touching the Queen's service in Ireland, Submission of Tyrone, Montjoy's Instructions and Proceedings, Illness and Death of Elizabeth, James I proclaimed King, Bacon seeks to get himself recommended to his Favor, An offer of Service to his Majesty upon his first coming in, A Letter to the Earl of Northumberland, mentioning a Proclamation drawn for the King at his Entrance, The Proclamation, Procedings of the Council during the Interregnum, Relations between Bacon and the Earl of Southampton upon the King's coming in, Bacon's Interview with the King and the first Impressions, A Letter to the Earl of Northumberland after he had been with the King, Bacon's Official Position and Prospects, State of his Private Affairs, Project of Marriage, Letter to Robert Cecil July 3, 1603, Letter to the same July 16, 1603, Progress of Philsophical Speculations, Preface to intended Treatise " De Interpretatione Naturae.", Probable Occasion and Object of Book on the "Advancement of Learning.", His Opinion upon the Union of England and Scotland, in a Discourse privately dedicated to King James, Dispute between the High Churchmen and the Puritans, True Policy of the Government, Conference at Hampton Court, ThePriest's Plot, Trial of Sir Walter Ralegh, Popular Impressions with regard to Bacon's Conduct towards Essex : whence derived, Convenience of the Time for Explanation, Reason for believing that the Explanation was not considered unsatisfactory to Bacon's Contemporaries. pp. 392- 442


Chapter III

1604

A new Parliament summoned., Great Question of Privilege : Sir Francis Goodwin's Case, Conference with the King., Committee appointed to draw up Reasons against conferring : Bacon to deliver them to the King, Committee appointed to confer with the Judges : Bacon to be Spokesman, Compromise proposed and agreed to, State of the Law with regard to Wardship, Purveyance, Monopolies, ect., referred to a Committee, Resolutions of Committee reported by Bacon, The King's Attitude in the Matter of Purveyors, Procedings with regard to Union, Commissioners chosen and Act Passed, Dissatisfaction of the King, His Letter to the Commons, Conference with the Lords about a Book published by a Bishop in derogation of the Lower House., The Bishop rebuked and made to acknowledge his Error, Protest of Convocation against Pretensions of the House of Commons, Unsatisfactory Conference with the Lords on Wardships and Tenures, Another Speech from the King, Union Act passed with unusual Expedition, Interchange of Explanations, Apology of the Commons, Hint from the Lords that a Subsidy would be welcome, Motion received doubtfully and withdrawn by the King's Desire, Parliament prorogued, Vacation Work, Preparations for the Meeting of the Commisioners for the Union, Proceedings of the Commissioners, Resolutions digested into form by Bacon, and a Pre-amble prepared : The most humble Certificate or return of the Commissioners of England and Scotland, authorized to treat of a Union for the Weal of both Realms, Unanimity of the Commissioners (all but one) and prosperous Dispatch of their Business., Causes of Delay in submitting their Recommendations to Parliament., pp443-471.


Chapter IV.
1605-1607

The Solicitor General (Fleming) made Chief Baron., Doderidge made Solicitor, Interval of Leisure for Bacon, Progress of the "Advancement of Learning", Gunpowder Plot, Letter to Toby Matthew, Bishop Andrewes and the "Advancement of Learning", Death of the Chief Justice of the Common Pleas, Succeeded by Sir Francis Gawdy, Puisne Judge of the King's Bench, Second Session of James' first Parliament, The King relates the Discovery of a Plot, Adjournment to January 21, Altered Temper of the Commons. Grant of Two Subsidies agreed upon, Question of Unity postponed, Temper of the House toward the King and Grant of the Three Subsidies and Six Fifteenths and Tenths, Rumor of Promotions in the Law, Letter to the Earl of Salisbury, No charges Made, Marriage of Bacon to Alice Barham, Death of Sir Francis Gawdy, Coke succeeds him as Chief Justice of the Common Pleas, Sir Henry Hobart made Attorney General, Promotion of Doderidge to the Office of King's Serjeant and of Bacon to that of Solicitor, intended but not effected, Death of Mr. Beltenham of Gray's Inn, Letter to Sir Thomas Posthummus Hobby, Memorial to Beltenham erected by Bacon, A Letter of Request to Dr.Playfrere to translate the "Advancement of Learning" into Latin, Death of Playfere, Parliament meets again November 28, 1606, Answer to the Petition of Grievances, Debates on the Instrument of Union, Committee appointed to prepare for Conference with the Lords, Article concerning General Naturalization opposed by Fuller, Question of Law concerning the Post-Nati., Motion for a Pefect Union opposed by Bacon, The King's Speech to the Commons immediately before the Easter Recess, Another Speech after their Reassembling, Project of General Naturalization allowed to Drop, Bill for Aboloshing Hostile Laws, Bacon made Solicitor-General at last, End of Session, Englargement and final Settlement of the Plan of the "Great Instauration", "Idols of the Theatre, ""Cogitata et Visa", A Letter to Sir Thomas Bodley, Dispute about the Jurisdiction of the Provincial Council in Wales, Attempt to improve the Constitution of Petty Juries by getting Gentlemen to serve on them, Proclamation concerning Jurors, pp.472-515

BOOK IV.

Chapter I.

1607-1609

Increase of Judge's Salaries, Fee granted to Bacon, Delays in theExchequer, A Letter of Expostulation to Sir Vincent Skinner, Conversion of Toby Mattthew to the Romish Church, Committed to Custody on his Return to England, Allowed to visit Bacon, Letter to a Friend, about Reading and giving Judgment upon his Writings, Mathew refuses to take the Oath and is committed to the Fleet Prison., Letter to Toby Matthew, His Banishment, Relation between Bacon and Salisbury, A Letter to the Earl of Salisbury, of Courtesy upon a New Year's Tide, Question whether the Post-Nati were naturalized by Law, argued before all the Judges in the Exchequer, and settled that they were, Bacon's Views as to the Foreign Policy of England, His Fragment on "The True Greatness of England", Book of Private Memoranda, General Survey Survey of the Contents, Popish Libels against the Memory of Queen Elizabeth, Bacon's Memorial of her Felicities, To Sir George Cary in France upon sending him his Writing "In Felicem Memoriam Elizabethae," Progress of the "Instauratio Magma," Letters to the same on "In Felicem Memoriam Elizabethae," Redargutio Philosophiarum., A Letter to Mr. Matthew, upon sending to him Part of the " Instauratio Magma," Bishop Andrewes and Cardinal Bellarmin, A Letter to Bishop Andrewes upon sending his Writing, entitled "Cogitata et Visa," Bacon's Book on the Wisdom of the Ancients, Probable motive for publishing it at this Time, Modern Views of the Meaning of the old Myths,A Letter to Mr. Matthew, upon sending him his Book "De Sapientia Veterum", Bacon invites Isaac Casaubon, then in Paris, to a Correspondence, A Letter to Casaubon., pp.516-570

Chapter II.
1610

State of the Exchequer, Ordinary Income of the Crown insufficient for its ordinary Outlay, Decrease in the Value of Subsidies, Death of the Lord Treasurer and Condition of the Treasury, Salisbury succeeds to the Office, HIs first Measures, His Device of the Great Contract, Meeting of Parliament, Conferences between the Houses, Bacon's Part, Contribution and Retribution, What the King Demanded, and what he offered in Exchange, Proceedings of the Commons against Dr. Cowell for Unconstitutional Doctrines published in a Law Dictionary, Suppression of the Book of Proclamation, Further Conferences concerning the Great Contract, Whether Wards and Tenures were to be part of the Retribution, Liberty to treat granted, Offer made by the Conmons, Dilatory Proceeding of the Government, Apparent Impolicy and probable Motive of it, Pretended Misunderstandings, Salisbury's new Version of the Government Proposal, Rejected, Negotiations broken off, Collection of Grievances, Impositions, Message from the King to the Commons received through the Council, Resolved not to recieve Messages from the Council as Messages from the King, but the Resolution not recorded, The King warns the Commons not to dispute his Power by to lay Impositions upon Merchandises; though willing to put a limit upon the Exercise of it, Petition of Right presented, graciously received and granted, Assassination of Henri IV, Negotiation of the Great Contract Resumed, Salisbury urges Expedition, Tries to get a grant of Subsidies at once, but without Success, Debate on Impositions, Conference concerning the Contract, Better offer from the King, Petition of Greivances presented, Bacon's speech to the King in behalf of the Commons, The King offers to consent to an Act suspending his Power to impose for the Future without consent of Parliament, Dissatisfaction of the Commons, Grant of one subsidy and one Fifteenth, Great Contract resumed, Terms agreed upon, and Memorials exchanged, Answer given to the remaining Grievances, and Parliament prorogued till October, Terms of the Contract,as affecting the People, considered., pp. 571-622


Chapter III.
1610-11

Death of Bacon's Mother, Probable Condition of her latter Years, Letter to Sir Michael Hickes, Effect of Discussion of the Great Contract during the Recess, Loss and Gain variously estimated; and both Parties afraid of the Result, Parliament meets again, Conference between the Houses, by Invitation of the Lords, True Copy of the King's Answer to the Petition of Grievances sent for by the Commons, A resolute and speedy Answer whether they would proceed with the Contract, required of the Commons by the King, Debate in the House upon the Answer to be sent, Provisions without which the Contract would not be safe for the People, Terms demanded by the King, Refusal of the Commons to Proceed upon those Terms, Negotiations broken off, New Device for obtaining Supplies, The Commons invited to a Conference, Salisbury's Enumeration of Things to be desired by both Houses, Message of Thanks and Explanation resolved upon but no Supply voted, Dissolution of the Parliament, Literary Occupations, Relation between the Crown and the Commons, Legal Appointments, Prospects of Promotion, Letters to the King in suit for the Attorney's Place, Letter to Salisbury, New Year's Letter to Sir Michael Hickes, Death of Sir Thomas Sutton, Founder of the Charterhouse, Will contested, Advice to the King touching Sutton's Estate., pp.623-654


Chapter IV.
1612-1613

Death of Salisbury, Result of his Financial Administration, Critical Character of the Occasion, Bacon's Thoughts and Aspirations, Letters to the King upon Salisbury's death, Difficulty of filling the Place of Principal Secretary of State, Bacon's Offer, Secretaryship left vacant, Treasureship put in Commission, Bacon a Subcommissioner, Increasing Improtance of Bacon as a Councillor, Letter to the King touching his Estate, New Volume of Essays published, Intended Dedication to the Prince, Death of the Prince, Rememberance of his Character written in Latin by Bacon, His Contributions to the Festivities on Occasion of the Marriage of the Princess Elizabeth, Question of calling a new Parliament, Bacon's Views and Advice, His Letter to the King, with Advice how to proceed with a Parliament., Advice given by Sir Henry Neville on the same Occasion, Contrast between the two, Death of Sir Thomas Fleming, Chief Justice of the King's Bench, Bacon recommends Sir H.Hobart for his Successor, Attempting to Introduce Parliamentary Government in Ireland, Creation of new Boroughs, Election of Sir John Davies as Speaker, Refusal of the Roman Catholic members to serve, Reference to the King, Commissioners appointed to investigate Complaints, Report of the Commissioners; and orders issued thereupon, The seceding Members consent to serve, Coke made Chief Justice of the King's Bench : Hobart, of the Common Pleas : Bacon, Attorney General : Yelverton, Solicitor General, Letter of Thanks to the King, Dissolution of the Marriage between the Earl of Essex and Lady Frances Howard, Her Marriage to Rochester, created Earl of Somerset for the Occasion, Bacon's Complimentary Offering of the "Masque of Flowers.", Probable Motive and Occasion, Prevalence of Duels, Proclamation against them by the King, Bacon's Recommendation, His Proposition for the repressing of Singular Combats or Duels., pp. 655-709.

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