Don Quixote-Amadis (Donzel del Mare)



(the Fish King, King of Herrings or "Herring")

Chapter from the book,

Bacon Shakespeare Cervantes



Alfred Von Weber Ebenhoff



Special thanks to Simon Miles for preparation of text and images
Thanks to Steven Marble of Catalyst for making available this English Translation


We have just learned about Amadis, the pattern of Don Quixote, a secretly-born prince of royal descent and cast away upon the sea, had a similar fate to Francis Bacon, the son of Queen Elizabeth and Leicester. Hence as Amadis was called "Donzel del Mare", young lad of the sea, and Quixote, in imitation of him, is named Don de La Mancha, young man of the Mancha or of the Canal la Mancha as an arm of the sea, so is it only natural that Bacon too is represented as a like sort of sea prince or young man.

In different illustrated tittle pages of old editions of Bacon's works of the 17th century we find a peculiar sort of large herring-like fish which is none other than the mythical herring king or properly the false herring king (Zeus Faber).

In early days the idea was held that this fish, which is often found in schools of herring, was a sort of herring king in the same way as the queen bee among bees. The myth then was framed that once a battle broke out between the species of fish and of birds, and to carry it on the fish unanimously chose the herring king as leader. Since then the herring king always traverses the sea at the head of a great host. The German herring and English herring spring from the word heer (host) and herring is properly the leader of the heers or a herzog, duke or leader of the hosts of the sea.
In this sense the herring king or herring is of course an allusion to the Donzel de Mare, the epithet of Amadis.

The representation of such a herring king we find in the title page of Bacon's Novum Organum 1620, which is shown in Figure 76.
Bacon's ship of knowledge sails between the pillars of ancient wisdom and the scholasticism of the middle ages, fancied as pillars of Hercules, into the open sea of Truth, to accomplish the conquest of the mind. It sails with colors displayed, while the second ship visible behind it sails with flags concealed, that is anonymously. It is Bacon's anonymous poetical muse.
Below at the right near the left hand pillar is seen a powerful fish which is just the mythical herring king that plainly is fancied as at the head of a school of herring.

Fig. 76. Title Page of Francis Bacon's Novum Organum London 1620.


 At left and right of the ship are the heads of two queer sea-creatures to be made out, that are intended to represent nothing else than seals, Neptune's droves, which according to the legend are guarded by Proteus.
That is so we learn from Baudoin's "Emblems" which came out in Paris in 1638 in connection with Bacon's Essays.
The picture taken from these Emblems, shown in Figure 77, represents to us Proteus, the shepherd of the seas, tending Neptune's droves, as is described in detail in Bacon's essay on
"Proteus or Matter" (XIII of De Sapientia Veterum, Proteus sive Materia).


Fig. 77 The Emblem "Proteus" from Baudoin's Work on Emblems, Paris 1638.

The heads of the queer sea-creatures visible at the right and left of Proteus are the same as are represented on the title page of Bacon's Novum Organum 1620. Only there, instead of Proteus, the herring king is pictured. Who, then, is this herring king?

On this point the title page of the collected folio edition of Bacon's works in five volumes, London 1778, gives us information. It is pictured in Fig. 78.

Below at the right near the left pillar we again find the herring king, but with the difference that his head is plainly the head of a boar; that it; the fish is characterized as Bacon's heraldic animal, the boar, a

Fig. 78. Title Page of the Second Volume of the Folio Edition of Bacon's Works, London, 1778.

representation of Bacon himself. That there may be no doubt of this, above the picture is found Bacon's coat of arms whereon the head of the boar as a helmet ornament resembles feature for feature the head of the herring king. Thus is it clearly asserted that the herring king is a symbol for Bacon.
Now there still is lacking one reference of Bacon, the herring king, to Proteus, the shepherd of the sea, who possesses the faculty of appearing in thousands of shapes, even as Bacon too must be described as the famous man of masks.

Fig 79. Head of the Fish King Oannes as Bacon-Proteus, From the title page of Bacon's "Novum Organum," 1620.

But this reference too is fully supplied by the title page of "Novum Organum" 1620 by Bacon, as it is pictured in Fig. 28. The herring fish shown here at the right under the left pillar has exactly the head of a fine full bearded man with crown, which may be recognized clearly as the head of Bacon from Von Somer's portrait Since this head in its small dimensions is difficult to recognize, the same is shown in enlargement from a pencil sketch by the author in Fig. 79.
Thus it is expressed that the herring king stands not merely for Francis Bacon, but also for the many shaped Proteus, who as symbol of matter takes, when forced to it, all possible forms; that is, writes anonymously and pseudonymously, and more than this, is a crowned fish with the head of a man; that is, it stands for the king Oannes of the Babylonian legend who instructs mankind in all arts and sciences.

But he is also characterized as a young man of the sea, Donzel del Mare, as a clandestine son of a Queen, Amadis with whom Don Quixote (Bacon) is identified openly as among the foolish, only with clever precaution playing to the censor.
In what relation, then, stands Bacon, the herring king, the Proteus assuming sundry names and shapes, the fish king Oannes, the Donzel del Mare and new Amadis secret son of a Queen, to the Plays known under the name Shakespeare?

By way of introduction be it here said that Bacon's likenings to a herring or a herring king, king of herrings, are very numerous and include hitherto unobserved, or rather already forgotten, references to his other other pseudonyms, especially to Shakespeare.

Of particular importance are wholly clear statements referring to this in Nash's (Bacon's) "Lenten Stuff", in Nash's (Bacon's) "Pierce Pennyless," in Ben Jonson's "Every Man in his Humour," in Ben Jonson's "Every man out of his Humour," in Shakespeare-Bacon's "Romeo and Juliet," in Shakespeare-Bacon's "King Lear," and in Shakespeare-Bacon's "Hamlet."
In the following pages these researches, which the author so far has nowhere met in literature, are taken care of.

The basis of this "herring hypothesis" (as a presumably it will be termed by the Stratfordian side, but which particularly is no hypothesis whatever being merely quotation from undisputed literary and historical documents) is framed on Ben Jonson's "Every Man in his Humour," and, to be exact, on the third scene of the first act. The scene is played between Oliver Cobb, a water carrier, ( he might well be from the Castalian springs) and Master Mathew. Cob is a character who passes for a clown and behind him stands Francis Bacon by whom many years Ben Jonson was employed as literary side in his pay. Master Mathew is a friendly take-off on Sir Toby Mathew, a young friend and secretary of Bacon who somewhat affected piety and so was jokingly addressed as "Your Worship," "Cob" etymologically signifies a young herring, thence also a youth or descendant, in general.

The conversation between Cob(Bacon) and Mathew (Sir Toby Mathew) goes on in front of Cob's poor, solitary dwelling. Mathew is suprised that Cob lives in a house of that kind, whereupon Cob explains to him that he and all his line have thought it best for the present take up a resting place in this house.

Upon the question as to what he means by "his line", (a question that is put merely to give opportunity to go to the heart of the matter) Cobb explains that he is descended from a great king of a powerful ruling family, that the first founder of the line got his crown by marriage, but that his son was a great and mighty king. This man was Cob's grandfather. The entire recital points most exactly to the founding of the Tudor dynasty by Henry VIII after the battle of Bosworth in 1485, who as son of Edmund Tudor and Margaret Beaufort, heiress of John of Gaunt (Lancaster), in the following year so strengthened his position that he married Elizabeth of York, daughter of Edward IV, and thereby united both roses, the red and the white, after bloody, protracted civil wars between York and Lancaster, the two branches of the reigning royal house of Anjou or Plantagenet; as is also heraldically expressed in the white and red Tudor rose.

Out of this grew the strong, absolute royal power of Henry VII that reached its highest point in Henry VIII, an out and out oriental despot and Bluebeard ruling by the axe of the executioner.
These chief traits of the beginning of the dynasty in marriage; that is, in Adam and Eve's kitchen, as well as the political significance of the founder of the dynasty and his mighty son permit us to recognize without doubt Henry VII and Henry VIII.

Of the latter Cob then explains his descent as from a grandfather, which again is in complete accord, for Bacon as the eldest son of Queen Elizabeth was a grandson of Henry VIII.

Thus does Cob establish for his friend Mathew, at first in general terms then in detail, his descent from a powerful race of kings in astonishingly plain manner.

Had nothing further followed, to be sure, the censor might have suppressed the book. That this might not occur, the whole story of descent (by usual methods met with countless times) is transformed and put forth. One is speaking of a Cob ( that is a young herring, of the descent of a herring king only and not of an actual king over men.

The further development of the scene is such that the initiated well recognize it to be merely a joke to mislead the censor; for indeed it is characterized as a direct lie. At the end it is said in joking fashion that Cob is none other than Francis Bacon, of which numerous examples occur in the comedy. In it's sister comedy, to some extent connected by similarity of title, Every Man out of his Humour," is jestingly employed a series of scenes that doubtlessly allude to the fact the fine charming herring (thus Bacon) is but "Shake-speare" (Puntarvolo) but "Romeo" a secret prince and anonymous writer, an "Anon", as the English abbreviation is for "anonymous", and is the Drawer (funmaker) Francis (clearly Bacon) in Shakespeare's "Henry the Fifth" when called vociferously twenty times, acknowledges the calls at once with the word "Anon.."

It is Bacon's mind which drifts out of both these comedies and in the highest degree presumable that, composed by Bacon himself, they have appeared under the friendly and simple colors of Ben Jonson. Ben Jonson was indeed known as Bacon's "left hand" and is represented also according to his bust as left-handed.

The scene from Ben Jonson's "Every Man in his Humour," treats of the importance of Ben Jonson as a poet and writer of his times and of his intimate (except for bygone irritations) relations of close friendship to Lord Francis Bacon, whom he extols in his poems of homage upon his 60th birthday in the folio edition of the Plays in 1623 and in his "Discoveries" as the greatest poet of all times and peoples, who surpassed all that Greece and Rome had done and represented the acme of the English tongue--flatly an historical document of highest importance for all who know how to read it. For the blind and such as pretend blindness this document, of course, does not exist; indeed is of no moment here.

In regard to this importance the scene mentioned is carried on it's main features as follows :

"Ay sir, I and my lineage have kept a poor house here in our days" says Cob to Mathew's question.

"Mat: The lineage, Monsieur Cob! What lineage? (The expression "Monsieur" recalls Gabriel Harvey's address to Bacon (Immerito) author of "Shephearedes Calender"--"My italized french Monsieur")
Cob : " Why Sir, an ancient lineage and a princely." " Mine ancestry came from a king's belly--no worse man."

Now comes in usual fashion the turn into apparent inoffensiveness, which is meant for the great body of the uninformed and as a matter of form for the censor.

Cob : " and yet no man either, by your worship's leave, I did lie in that, but herring, the king of fish (from his belly I proceed), one of the monarchs of the world, I assure you."

Cob's assurance that on this point he had lied can very well have signified that his assertion he sprang from "no man either" is a lie, which certainly is correct since a man can not descend from any fish, and in case he maintains it, this manifestly can be only a lie. Thus he sprang from no fish but indeed from an actual king.

Cob : " The first red herring that was broiled in Adam and Eve's kitchen, do I fetch my pedigree from, by the harot's book."

The first red herring (Lancaster wore the red rose) which was begotten of Owen Tudor and Marguerite Beaufort (Lancaster) was Henry VII who was Lancaster on his mother's side. From him I, Bacon, derive my genealogical tree, according to the herald's book.

"His cob was my great, great, mighty great, grandfather."

Mathew now asks Cob how he knows that, whereupon Cob answers, he smells the flesh of his grandfather in himself, and as Mathew doubts this, comes the important disclosure consisting of this, that Cob is identical with Francis Bacon; that is, Bacon is the grandson and heir of Henry VIII.

Cob : " Ay, Sir : With favour of your Worship's nose, Master Mathew, why not the ghost of a herring cob as well as the ghost of Rasher Bacon?

Now Rasher Bacon has a double meaning. On the one hand if it means bacon quickly broiled on the grill, then surely it would be written with a small initial. Since, however, this is not so, the jest on bacon is only misleading so as to arrive at the personal name Rasher Bacon by a witty roundabout way. This is clearly Bacon's name, and that there may be no doubt about it, "Rasher" stands there, an old forgotten word but one that is found in Spenser's "Fairie Queene" and in "King Lear" meaning the boar thrusting obliquely and upwards, Bacon's heraldic animal.
Thus doubtless "Rasher Bacon" signifies Francis Bacon.

Mathew now corrects Cob and says to him :

"Sureley thou meantest to say Roger Bacon,"

whereby he calls to mind the famous scholar and martyr of the 14th Century, of whom Bacon (Greene) writes dramatically in "Friar Bacon and Friar Bungay," but Cob protests against this.

Cob : " I say Rasher Bacon. They were both broiled on the wales" {figuratively speaking, martyred} "and a man may smell broiled meat, I hope! you are a scholar, upsolve me that now."

That is to say I, Bacon, trace my lineage to a stigma, namely the stigma of the secret marriage of Elizabeth and Lord Leicester in Lord Pembroke's house, held practically in his private chapel, when Elizabeth was already near her confinement. Also the official disavowal and later the absolute denial of this fully consummated religious marriage sullied Bacon with the brand of bastardy. His painful sensitiveness to this feeling of bastardy that shamed him Bacon expresses openly in all his works. We meet it time and again in works published in his name and anonymously.

Thus runs the introductory poem of Bacon (Immerito) in "Shepheardes Calender" (1579) written in his 18th year, but far from being the first of Bacon's youthful productions :

"To His Booke"

Goe, little Booke, thy self present,
As Child, whose parent is unkent,
But if that any aske thy name,
Say thou wert base begot with blame :
For why thereof thou takest shame."

In numerous places in Shakespeare's Plays we meet Bacon's contempt for illegitimate birth, as for instance in "The Tempest" where Prospero (Bacon) cautions Ferdinand and Miranda their son, before they, side by side, shall hear the church's blessing bestowed. This contempt both belies in every way the life of the man of Stratford and we also find in countless places in the Plays of Bacon-Shakespeare the continual parading of bastardy, partly by way of disapproval and accusation of his parents, particularly Elizabeth, partly in ways that reveal the personal smart or yet again in haughty, self-conscious manner, such as in "King John" as bastard descendant of the royal line of Plantagenet. Gloucester's bastard Edmund in "King Lear" shows the poisonous influence of illegitimate birth on the development of the bastard's character, who rages against the wrong done him. A wholly similar thought is repeated also in the monologue of the bastard Faulconbridge, who is just Bacon himself in Shakespeare's "King John." This is the stigma in Shakespeare's Sonnets, not the supposed sorrow of the illiterate Stratfordian that he is scorned as an actor. He was not even that, but merely a theatrical straw-man interposed by Bacon. He was his agent or representative; which finds humorous expression in the idea of Sancho Panza's governership, that was simply silly. This idea of representation finds expression also to a certain extent in the so called Stratford Memorial.

"Thou art a scholar," says Cob finally, "solve me that now!"

In extraordinary manner there is here presented for solution to the world; yes, to the world of learning, not to the ordinary public, a puzzle over Bacon's royal descent.

The author is convinced that the solution of the puzzle which Bacon has wanted from his friend Mathew is to be found only in the explanation here set forth. It would be going to far afield to consider more closely the numerous allusions to Bacon that are contained in Ben Jonson's "Every Man out of his Humour." Bacon seems to be directly characterized as "Puntarvolo" which clear allusion to the "Shakespeare" name as well as to "Pierce (Penniless)" another pseudonym. (Nash)

In this passage is also included a sly imitation of the balcony scene from "Romeo and Juliet", with the evident intention of showing that Bacon (Puntarvolo) in the magnificent play holds himself out as Romeo in his love story with Juliet, who is no one but Marguerite of Valois, living apart from the court at Paris, the later divorced, but beautiful queen of Navarre.

He is also clearly portrayed as a jurist, an anonymous writer and a knight errant.

The point here, first of all, is in what respect has Bacon (who in the before-mentioned comedy is none other than Romeo) been characterized in the Romeo play expressly as king of herrings or herring, or after the manner of Amadis set forth as the secretly-born son of a queen, as a Donzel del Mare.

This happens, of course, in rather far-fetched jesting manner, but in a way that is astonishingly evident and detailed. We recall the scene in which Mercutio and Benvolio are waiting fro Romeo and make sport about his palid, lovesick countenance:

Benvolio: Here comes Romeo, here comes Romeo"

Mercutio: Without his Roe like a dried herring. O flesh, flesh, how art thou fishified!

This passage is translated by Schlegel-Tieck literally, except for the _expression "ohne seinem Roggen" (rye) instead of "Rogen" (roe).

Delius notes here:

"A pun upon roe and Ro as the first syllable of the name. Romeo no longer applies to him wholly, only as divided".

In the 1623 Folio, however, it does not stand "roe" as Delius asserts, but "Roe" with capital initial R.

Preparation for splitting the herring is made at the very beginning of scene IV, where Mercutio says:

"The very pin of his heart cleft with the blind bow-boy's buttshafts".

Herrings were split, the roe taken away and then dried. As Romeo is cleft by the shaft of love, so is his name into the syllables of Ro and moe. By the splitting he has lost one-half (Ro) to his adored Rosaline, hence he is "without his Ro". Here the pun starts. Since he is split and his roe removed, he is termed a "dried herring", which is not at all logical.

The whole pun in the original English is clearly in the highest degree affected and insipid; which Bacon too can not have failed to see. Nevertheless if he used a pun of this kind, he was undoubtedly pursuing some purpose, namely, to greet Romeo at his entrance upon the stage as a herring, as a Donzel del Mare, as Amadis, the young man of the sea, the abandoned prince kept secret; for Bacon is bringing himself upon the stage in the role of Romeo and wishes to call this particular circumstance expressly to the attention of the initiated.

The remark "the pale hard-hearted Rosaline torments him so, that he will sure run mad" refers to the persecutions of his mother Elizabeth, which are here brought in as those of a "beloved Rosaline". In the translation she is called Rosalinde, which is wrong. "Rosaline" is short for "the royal Saline", the "Well of Tears" where by allusion is probably made to the Dulcinea-Elizabeth who according to the Introduction to "Don Quixote" "had the best hand at salting Porks" (Bacon). Actually Elizabeth has indeed so thoroughly slated both of her luckless sons, so split them and robbed them of their Ro's (abbreviation for royalties, that is royal prerogatives) that rightly she must stand to both as a source of tears. Whoever may hold that this meaning is "affected", "goes altogether too far" and such, simply proves that he does not know Bacon's hidden jests, and his method of revealing them. He to whom these subtle methods of Bacon may appear trivial or quite childish, should try to imitate them. He will soon be convinced how difficult it is to let something go to print which might not be spoken at the risk of freedom and of life, because it is a state secret of high politics and of dynasty. Bacon, a master in this art, has his puzzle so well concealed that many Oedipuses through generations have been required to solve it. These Oedipuses of course need have no Stratford blinders over their eyes, nor will they purposely pretend blindness for petty advantage in the present or in the future.

Romeo (Bacon) is here pitied not as a luckless lover, since his originally enthusiastic but cruelly repressed affection as a son for Rosaline (Elizabeth and no other) indeed does not keep him in the least from falling in love at his first red-hot glance at Juliet, but as a tortured and heartlessly treated secret Amadis, prince of the sea, the herring prince or herring.

This secret meaning has value only in a literary and historical way and is not at all suitable for portrayal on the stage, since without commentary it is unintelligible. Not being understood, it just rings silly and one merely has to stand amazed that it was played at its first court performance without eliciting a thought.

The scene might well be understood in this way: "Here comes poor Romeo, robbed of his birthright. The royal herring is drained of his resources now".

At any rate the remark is generally unsuitable for representation. The stage management naturally gave it no attention, and the regular theatergoer merely passed it by lightly, pricking up his ears and questioning his neighbors (just as shrewd as he) as one versed in the ways of the theatre, looking like a downright fool over this peculiar herring, to him incomprehensible, and not asking how (should he find it generally compatible with his theatrical custom) he may outwardly allow astonishment and curiosity, two absolutely plebeian attributes, to be noticed.

It is time that at last the question be put: "What think you about this herrin, esteemed theatre managers of this little orb of earth?".

The great significance and importance that Bacon has attached to the herring symbol, which recurs so astonishingly often,is brought out most clearly in that he applies it to the title page of his most important play "Hamlet" which represents the thrilling tragedy of the last scion of the royal Tudor line.

The Hamlet legend itself is acknowledged to be of ancient origin and employed by Bacon only in part for his purposes.

Indeed he never invents the materials for his plays, as he particularly explains, but from the rich store of happenings at hand and naturally developed takes only such as best suit him for the illustration of his determined train of thought.

He puts completed chronicles upon the stage as subject matter and fashions his dramatic scenes by speech and reply, as he illustrates allegorically in his Pan book-band by the play and counter play of the two archers. Since he himself thinks with logical keenness and knowledge of the world, he pours into his separate characters only such words and actions as, true to nature, will serve the adaptability and transmission of character and passions, whereto his scientific knowledge of the world and his ethical, lofty grasp of world affairs serve as putty and background.

Thus in the character of Hamlet are incorporated chiefly the life events and traits of his unfortunate brother Essex, but partly too his own, such as his melancholy sadness, his indecision, his philosophical reflection and impractical nature. The queen without doubt is Elizabeth herself, the king, Leicester, who dies of the poison which he has prepared for another; in part also Raleigh, after Leicester's death the queen's favorite and a bitter enemy of her son Robert Essex whose death (as is brought out in letters that survive) he has directly planned. He does this for his own safety, since Essex hated him and would surely have ruined him, as Raleigh knew from an overheard conversation that Essex held with the queen. A similar eavesdropping scene takes place in "Hamlet".

The chief motive is the withholding of right of succession of the throne or right to the throne itself by the royal mother Elizabeth under Leicester's influence, whose personal character is described by all historical research as one of the most abominable of his times.

Bacon himself, his own son, has laid down a fearful memorial for him in the anonymous work "Leycesters Common Wealth".

Through the serious sin of the mother, which however for the most part is indulgently heaped, in the play, upon her second husband, arises the bloody drama of the last Tudors and a new dynasty, the Stuarts, represented by Fortinbras, appears upon the stage; of course very much embellished in the interest of King James.

Of all there remains only the mysterious Horatio, the scion shoved aside, to tell the world the tale of the horrible death of Essex, of Elzabeth and of Leicester. He Bacon-Horatio, has to keep himself cautious and secret, that he might avoid dagger and poison, and that in his lonely cell of poet and thinker he might give himself to the irresistible spell of the muses, he renounces his endeavor for worldly power.

This standpoint of Bacon is now plainly expressed in the title vignette of the quarto edition of "Hamlet, that of 1603 and of 1604. (Fig 80).

In the center of the picture Bacon may be seen as herring king ashe keeps hidden from strange eyes, entangled in the twining vine of "Lonicera periclimenum" the honeysuckle, the German geissblatt, sweet poetic flower, and forms the center for the honeysuckle poetry. At left and right ride two dragon shapes, remarkably formed and having wings. They constitute the first courses served regularly on Easter Day according to the custom of Queens College of Oxford University, by which are prepared from herrings in such a way that, by aid of a figure set upon them made from a mass of dough, they have the appearance as if a rider were riding off upon herring dragons.

Both the herring dragon-riders are nearly related to the Bacon-herring in the center of the page; they are riding to hell where Hecate, well known Diana of the underworld, holds them side by side with both hands. The riders are Elizabeth and the rebel Essex whom Bacon had to sentence himself.

At right and left of the centre of the picture are two plants, of which one is a plant of deadly poison, the nightshade (belladonna), the other borage, poisons that were a threat to the concealed poet and philosopher Bacon and' eventually in 1626 caused him to flee to Holland after a mock Rosicrucian interment.

The life tragedies of his parents and of his unfortunate brother, partly his own more passive and enduring role, Bacon-Horation has represented in Hamlet.


Figure 80: Title page of the Quarto Edition of "Hamlet" 1604.


This is the tale of suffering of Bacon, the herring prince, the Donzel del Mare and new Amadis-Don Quixote, who in Romeo on the open stage is lamented so covertly and secretly as a victim driven even to madness by the hard-hearted Elizabeth. This madness which was there prophesied did not really occur, but he borrows that garb of madness, the guise of a literary Brutus, that as a knight errant Don Quixote he might at least in a literary way undertake a new romantic journey, as a seeming fool, to hold up to the world its actual folly; not to sneer but to improve and instruct, as one qualified to reveal the fraud perpetrated upon him and his brother Essex, in the interest of historical truth. From this importance of the fish-king or herring symbols in all works of Bacon and his pseudonyms, Shakespeare, Greene, Nashe etc. we are no longer astonished that the knight errant Don Quixote in his so-called romance is likewise directly characterized as a fish-king.

In chapter 18 of Part Two, which has the caption "What happened to Don Quixote in the Castle or House of the Knight of the Green Coat, with other extravagant Passages", Don Quixote analyzes for the young poet Don Lorenzo the requisites which constitute the science or rule of life of knight-errantry. After he has reviewed thereby nearly all sciences, arts and virtues, he remarks that last of all the knight errant must so learn how to swim, as is said, that he understood "Fish Nicholas" or (in the English text) "Nicolao".

"El peje Nicholas" (Pesce Cola) was the name of a famous swimmer of the 15th century who is reputed to have swum from Messina to Naples and' recovered also by diving objects into Charybdis. Upon one such attempt at diving to bring up a golden key thrown in by King Don Fabrique, he was drowned. This occurrence is said to have formed the basis of Schiller's poem "Der Taucher" (The Diver).

Since the true author of "Don Quixote", that is Bacon, calls himself openly the rightful knight errant, the fish Nicolao, meaning as translated from the Greek the fish king (ruler) who according to the legend already mentioned is none other but the false herring king or herring, he causes himself (in connection with all allusions to the herring) to be recognized openly as Bacon, the true author of Don Quixote. The herring is his name by which as Romeo he is openly addressed upon the stage; it is his picture on the title vignette of "Hamlet" and in Bacon's own works. This important allusion is in the old Spanish editions just as clear as in the Shelton original. There it says: "digo, che ha da saber nadar, como dize que nadava el pexe Nicolas, o Nicolao". In the German translation by Tieck this pun is completely lost, for there it reads: "that he must be able to swim as that diver Nicholas is said to have known how". The translated Greek "Nicolao" (ruler of the people or king) is here utterly lost. One sees that Tieck gets along with his translation of Cervantes no better than with that of Shakespeare, in that, just because of ignorance of the pseudonyms, the family relationships an d the Rosicrucian connections of Bacon, the indispensable key is lacking. This knowledge, actually in England but nominally in America (although there upon the wholly incorrect false basis of Mrs Gallup's pretended decipherings) is much more current than in Germany, where the self assurance, so strongly asserted, of the German Shakespeare and' Cervantes critic is indeed justly provided with a very severe restraint. We find in Don Quixote as outward marks of recognition the long word with the cipher count of Bacon the Rosicrucian (Fra Rosicrosse) that is 287, often connected with Bacon's work and other compositions, the fish-king symbol, the "Ba speld backwards with the horn on his head", numerous striking cases of bringing in Bacon's name and his heraldic animal, numerous book-bands, title pages, vignettes, initials etc. with Bacon's name displayed in ways customary in the Baconian works. It is the usual silly gesture of the Stratfordians to laugh at this secret method of illustration by Bacon as madness. This method, however, is by no means a malevolent invention of the Baconian, but is described in the famous letters "Baconiana" published in 1679 by the executor of Bacon's later literary testament, Archbishop Tenison, in the following way, somewhat disguised but distinct enough:

"And they who possess rightful skill can find out in the works of Lord Bacon, just as great connoisseurs of painting learn from the drawing, the strength and the style of the representation whether he be the author of this or that work, although his name be not beneath it".

This testimony of Tenison is of immense importance. It proves that Bacon wrote anonymously and pseudonymously and by cleverly concealed signs (understandable though to the initiated),and by allusions purposely made it possible to recognize his authorship. That Tenison here did not refer merely to Bacon's literary style, with which he is familiar, but to the marks and other secret symbols is clear. The famous writing "Baconiana" is truly a revelation for the sole purpose of putting new life into the study of the secret symbols hidden in Bacon's works.

This is a clear, historical attestation which allows of no doubt.

Internally, thousands of parallelisms of ideas, forms of expression, views, sentiments, allusions of all sorts speak for this, that only Francis Bacon can be the real Cid Hamete Benengeli, Lord Bacon, England's son and' author of "Don Quixote."